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Home Dressmaking 
Made Easy. 



EMMA M. HOOPER. 



M 



VIYELLA 



99 



(Registered) 

FLANNiEL;;- 

Comes in light, medium and heavy weights. In the newest delicate shades for 

J^ALL, !<)<>:*. 

SOLID COLORS! STRIFES! PLAIDS! JACQUARDS 

PRINTS! AND FANCY WOVEN EFFECTS ! 




■N 1 




For LADIES' Flannel Waists, Dressing Gowns and Outdoor Costumes. 
CHILDREN'S garments for all occasions. 
MEN'S Negligee Shirts. 

VIYELLA " can be obtained at the leading: dry goods stores, 

(Registered) 

Dobs Not Shrink. 



V: .v. *.** 



Guaranteed. 

Jet Black, Blue Black, and All Colors. 



"A. W. B. 



>» 



t^Ot* 



\eV* 



fd 



fas* 



c-k. 



<$\a 



Velvet. 



Wear Guaranteed. 



" Guaranteed will not rub." 



'A. W. B." rinisfy" 

Voute var Velvet. 

Especially adapted for entire costumes.' Fast Black ; Guaranteed not to rub. 



Selvage of each yard stamped: 
'A. JJ\ D. BOULEVARD VEL VET." 
WEAR GUARANTEED. 



FOR SALE BY ALL LEADING DRY GOODS STORES. 
If your dealer cannot supply you, write to 

A. W. B. BOULEVARD VELVET. 

131. 133, 135. 137 Spring St.. New York City. 

and we will send you name of nearest dealer who can. 








• M 



" Paquin 



The only shaped-in-the-weave interlining 
ever produced. Constructed in alternating- 
strips of haircloth and linen. 
All cutting and trimming being done on the linen sec- 
tions, the haircloth does not unravel. 
Par excellence the interlining for flounces of skirts. 

"Princess" Featherweight Haircloth 

Light, resilient, uncrushable, it is the highest achievement 
of haircloth manufacturing. 
Ask at the dry goods store for these two products, and 
getting them you get the best. 

GEO. S. COX & BRO., 

Manufacturers, 

MINARET MILLS, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




'Ma p *._ 

GjXKMEJVTS- FO'R womejv. 

Made of absolutely pure fabrics, they outwear 
ordinary sorts. 

Designed from French, English and American 
models, they are up-to-the-minute in style. 

We'll send a pretty book of Fashions for the name 
of a dealer who doesn't sell Wooltex garments. 
H. "BLACK <3L CO.. 

91-93 Fifth At)e.. JVetv yorK. 
Also Cleveland, O. 





THE NEW SKIRTS 
REQUIRE 




Bias Velveteen 
Skirt Bindings 



BECAUSE THE NEW SKIRTS 

ARE INTERLINED. 



Sorosis Uncle* skirts 



YOUR FIGURE 

WILL PROVE IT 

If you belong to the ranks of stylish Sorosis Under- 
skirt wearers. Their gowns fit so well over the 
hips that they are the envy of all observers. Of 
course, the Sorosis Demi-Yoke is the underlying 
secret. 

The mercerized sateen used is the finest quality 
and the needlework perfect. 

If your dealer doesn't yet sell Sorosis Underskirts, 
drop us a line and we'll send you a beautiful sheet 
of fashions. 

SOROSIS GARMENT CO., Ionia, Mich. 





The Art of Dressmaking Is 
A Scientific Problem 



Which is easily solved if the correct ideas and methods are 
brought to bear. It only requires the proper foundation to 
produce the acme of fit and swaggerness in a dress, and that 
foundation is the "corset." 

The W. B. "Erect Form" Corset, with its latest improve- 
ments, has been adopted by all the leading Modistes as the 
only correct and perfect foundation for a faultless-fitting 
gown. 

This innovation on the part of critical connoisseurs, who have 
made perfection in dress a life study, should readily appeal to every 
woman who would enjoy the pleasures of comfort, as well as natti- 
ness, by having her gowns measured over a pair of W. B. "Erect 
Form" Corsets. 




THE EXPERT CLEANER. 

^HERE are a score of things about the house that 
you will not undertake to clean. You fear that 
fp they would be ruined by soap and you intend to 
send them to an expert cleaner, an idea that comes 
down from a time before pure soap was made. The 
manufacturers of Ivory Soap are constantly asked if they 
know how beautifully this or that material can be cleaned 
with Ivory Soap. The uses of Ivory Soap are too numerous 
to be told; with it anything may be cleaned that will stand 
the application of water. You can be your own expert cleaner. 




HOME DRESSMAKING 
MADE EASY. 



BY 

Emma M. Hooper, 

One of the Associate Editors of "The Ladies' Home Journal.' 



Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 



NEW YORK: 

THE FEDERAL PRINTING CO. 

1903 



CONGRESS. 
Two Copies Reoeivet' 

OCT 7 1903 

Copynght Entry 

Ctvc/n,. ^ _ / pj Q 3 
CLASS0 A. XXc. No 

COPY J, / 



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AN INTRODUCTION. 

One might style this an explanation or excuse for the book be- 
ing in existence, but there seemed to be a place for it and the 
author is trying to fill that niche after an experience of eighteen 
years with dry goods, dressmaking and the individual needs 
of women. From my large correspondence, I know that 
it is of general interest to an immense number of women 
who are obliged to do home dressmaking without any previous 
training. It has not been found advisable to illustrate current 
fashions, as they change too quickly to become standard, but the 
main principles of cutting, fitting and finishing, like the brook, 
go on forever, and these once learned make even the race with 
Dame Fashion an easy one. Have patience, perseverance and 
care and you will accomplish wonders. Surely it is worth the 
trial if you only learn to gown yourself economically and be- 
comingly. "Make haste slowly" in dressmaking. 

In these days there are many conveniences offered to the 
home dressmaker in the way of notions, materials, sewing imple- 
ments, etc., but very few are able to try them all and are thus 
unable to judge which is really best of the many for sale; for 
this reason I have given the names of several articles through 
this book, knowing them to be first in their line and satisfactory 
in every respect, and though some may be unfamiliar to my read- 
ers, when once tried they will prove indispensable. 

A desire to be well dressed is inborn with every woman, and 
man as well, and why not follow this desire unless it cause one 
to neglect home duties or induces one to spend more than can be 
afforded upon one's wardrobe? When neatly and becomingly 
attired a woman is happier and more at ease in her manner when 
in the presence of others, and remember that it costs no more 
to dress becomingly than it does to don the wrong materials and 
colors. If you do not know what is becoming and suitable Home 
Dressmaking will tell you. 

Especial attention is given in this little work to the dressing 
of very stout, extremely short and unduly slender figures. All 
figures may be improved if we only know how to do it, and I 
trust in a practical manner to make this possible for my read- 
ers. Many terms used by dressmakers are of an unknown tongue 
to an amateur, so I have added a list of definitions that I hope 
will assist my readers and prove, like the rest of this work, "a 
friend in need." 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter. Page. 

T. — What Is Needed in Sewing 11 

II. — To Use Paper Patterns Correctly 13 

III. — How to Wear a Corset 15 

IV. — To Cut and Fit a Skirt is 

V. — What You Should Know of Black Silks 22 

VI. — Cutting and Fitting Waists 2(1 

VII. — The Accessories of a Waist 30 

VIII. — The Use of Haircloth 34 

IX. — The Correct Use of Velvet 36 

X. — Finishing a Waist 38 

XL — Health and Style 41 

XII. — Becoming Colors and Fabrics 45 

XIII. — Maternity Gowns 48 

XIV. — Ornamental Hand Sewing 51 

XV. — To Renovate Materials 55 

XVI. — To Cleanse Laces, Furs, Etc 62 

XVII. — The Care of Gloves and Shoes 6G 

XVIII. — What Is Correct Mourning G8 

XIX. — Definitions Not Generally Known 71 

XX. — Correct Gowning for All Occasions 76 

Copyright by Kmma M. Hooper. 
1903. 



Home Dressmaking. 



CHAPTER L 

WHAT IS NEEDED IN SEWING. 

When commencing home dressmaking keep in view that this 
is an art, and the artist making a new, stylish, becoming gown is 
worthy of the best of tools and plenty of them. No one person 
has the opportunity of trying every new notion that makes its 
appearance, and yet many of them are great helps in a sewing- 
room. For this reason I have given the names of several articles 
in this book, knowing them to be first of their kind and perfectly 
satisfactory ; some may be unfamiliar, but after trying them I am 
confident that they will be as a tried and true help, necessary to 
the work-basket and sewing-room. 

The work-basket should have a cover to keep the dust out 
and contain the actual working tools, with the supplies in a cov- 
ered box or drawer. Among the "must haves" are a tracing 
wheel and white and colored crayons for marking paper patterns. 
Sovran pins of different sizes, an assortment of needles, small 
piece of wax to draw thread through at times, an emery cushion 
for needles that rust in perspiring hands, belting tape in white 
and gray in silk, cotton or mixed, the Paquin hair-cloth interlin- 
ing, the Granger hooks and eyes, invisible and otherwise ; flat and 
round bodkins, for running in ribbon, drawing strings, etc., and 
a strong, flat linen tape measure. 

Use only the best of sewing silk and twist for hand and 
machine stitching, and that of M. Heminway & Sons in black 
and a large variety of colors is smooth, even and strong; their 
crochet and embroidery floss are also necessary for a well-fur- 
nished sewing-basket, as so much is used in the ornamental hand- 
work now seen on gowns. A silver thimble costs but little now, 
and does not stain the finger if kept clean. Keep large, not heavy, 
shears for cutting, smaller scissors for general use, pointed 
scissors for ripping, and have them sharp ; the S. H. & M. bias 
velveteen skirt binding, plain or with a braid top, is also among 
the good things prepared for the woman determined to have all 
the details of her gown up to date. 



A reliable sewing-machine is the most important article in 
any dressmaking, and one cannot be too careful in selecting a 
machine, as upon its action depends the result of the work ; it 
must be kept well oiled and cleaned ; it should be easy to under- 
stand, light to run, speedy, doing fine and heavy work, and prov- 
ing a saving in time and a preserver of the operator's health, all 
of which is accomplished by the Singer sewing-machine, which 
has sung its way into many a dressmaker's heart for the help 
it has been. 

A supply of black and white cotton and the strong luster 
thread are necessary. A lapboard is a convenience, and should 
have one side hollowed out to fit the form ; cut on a low table, so 
you can sit down to it, and to continue your comfort have a stool 
for resting the feet, as steadily sitting in one position is tiresome ; 
a skirt-form is convenient for "hanging" a skirt, but the real fit- 
ting must be done on the wearer. 

Patterns must be used, and the May Manton will be found per- 
fect-fitting, stylish and of advanced ideas, and so economical in 
price as to be within the reach of all. When sewing, the hands 
must be kept clean and smooth, so use a pure soap — the Ivory — 
free from alkali, and on a warm day occasionally dust a little 
talcum powder over the hands. Keep old trimmings, scraps, lin- 
ings, etc., in boxes for future use, as they may be worth reno- 
vating and using in the far-famed seven years' time, when all 
things are supposed to have found their use. 

Among the necessary articles the Omo shield must be men- 
tioned, as there are many shields for protecting the waist, but 
only one Omo, which is light, durable, impervious to perspiration, 
odorless and without rubber. In the chapter relating to the fin- 
ishing of waists the proper manner of sewing on shields is ex- 
plained. The Clinton Safety pin is a convenience wherever it may 
be, which explains its necessity in the workbasket. It is not 
extravagance to have good tools and thus turn out better work. 

If there is a regular sewing-room it should be bright and airy, 
be carpetless, have a closet for hanging partly made articles and 
shelves and drawers for the store of conveniences and indispen- 
sables that a dressmaker may soon surround herself with. Sew 
in a low, armless rocking-chair, and have a high one at the 
machine; better work is done with the worker comfortable than 
otherwise, and I want each one trying to make a gown to achieve 
success. 



CHAPTER II. 

TO USE PAPER PATTERNS CORRECTLY. 

That there is a right and wrong way of doing may be plainly 
shown in the manner of using paper patterns, which are of 
immense assistance when of the correct cut in fitting as well as 
design. Have the right patterns, use them as they should be and 
home dressmaking becomes simple to understand, easy to accom- 
plish, economical to carry out and becoming in its results, alto- 
gether a charming combination. 

A pattern fits perfectly if the figure is perfect, as it is fitted 
and graded to a model of exact measurements, but there are few 
such figures outside of models, as all of us have little peculiarities 
of our own which an average pattern cannot give, but a pattern 
of perfect cut needs few alterations for any figure, and this exact 
perfection in fit is one of the characteristics of the May Manton 
patterns, which are also of advanced styles, economical in quan- 
tities and reasonable in price. 

To measure for a waist pattern, place the tape line over the 
fullest part of the bust close up under the arms and draw it 
snugly. For a skirt, measure the hips six inches below the waist- 
line, remove the belt and measure the waistline straight around ; 
draw these measures tightly. Sleeves are measured around the 
upper part of the arms, and a pattern is also sold by the bust 
measure. The proportionate measures are : Bust, 32 ; waist, 22 ; 
hips, 39£ inches. Bust, 34 ; waist, 24 ; hips, 43 inches. Bust, 
36 ; waist, 2C ; hips, 45 inches. Bust, 40 ; waist, 30 ; hips, 57 
inches. But American figures are more slender in the waistline 
than other nations. 

Patterns for children are ordered by the breast measure and 
age, as those of an age so often differ in size ; after two years 
girls generally increase two inches to two years in breast 
measure, from 1 year, 19 inches ; two years, 20 inches ; four years, 
22 inches ; six years, 24 inches ; twelve years, 30 inches ; fourteen 
years, 31^ inches ; sixteen years, 33^- inches. Children's patterns 
are graded every two years after two-year size, and women's are 
even sizes only, every two inches bust or waist measure. Every 
pattern has on its envelope instructions for cutting and putting 
together, but the home dressmaker must not only follow these, 
but exercise care, neatness and precision in details, in order to 
obtain the best results. These accurate patterns do not allow 

13 



seams, but the usual allowance is half an inch on all seams, except 
the underarm and shoulders, where an inch is left, the material 
proving the guide, as a raveling fabric requires a wider seam 
than a firm material. 

All plaits, gathers, etc., are plainly marked by crosses and 
perforations. Plaits are formed by placing single cross (X) on 
a single perforation (O), double crosses (XX) indicate where 
the garment is gathered, and triple crosses (XXX) denote that 
the edge so marked must be placed on the fold of the goods. 
Darts, tucks and wide plaits are marked by lines of perforations 
and are formed by these corresponding lines being brought 
together and stitched to position. Hems are indicated by lines 
of perforations, and lines of larger perforations show where the 
pattern must be placed on the straight thread of the goods. This 
is very important, as it prevents askew seams and crooked parts 
of a gown that even finished modistes allow from careless placing 
of patterns on the goods. After securing a pattern to the goods 
with the sharp, smooth Sovran pins trace it with a tracing wheel 
if you cannot cut without one. and use large cutting shears for 
convenience. 

Have some one to take all of your measures — waistline, hips, 
length front, back and sides for a skirt : for sleeve, length inside 
and outside of the arm, from elbow to wrist and to shoulder, 
around top of arm and wrist; for the waist, the bust, waist and 
collar around, length of front from lower edge of collar to waist- 
line, same in the back, length under the arms, across back between 
the armholes; compare these measures with your May Manton 
patterns and mark any needed alterations. Do not interfere with 
the outline of a pattern, as the designer and cutter know better 
the shape necessary to give not only the correct fit, but the style, 
that ever-to-be desired effect. 

Some garments are better shaped or built up on the intending 
wearer. Trimming should be pinned on when garment is on the 
owner, and the idea thus had of the article when finished. As 
few figures are of model measurements, the patterns may some- 
times prove long for the breadth ; never cut away length at the 
top or bottom of a pattern, as that entirely destroys the intended 
effect. Take away from the middle of the pattern if a skirt, 
waist, sleeve, etc., or, if necessary, add to at the same part, thus 
preserving the outline. 

You can mark through perforations with French chalk or 
crayons, as they do not stain any material. More information 

M 



regarding these reliable patterns is given in the different chapters 
devoted to cutting and fitting separate portions of a gown, and I 
wish to place the knowledge before my readers just where and 
when they need it, after the general information given in this 
chapter. Read the instructions given with each pattern and 
examine the latter carefully before cutting the goods, then con- 
tinue with attention, and success will be yours, and the problem 
of dressmakine: solved. 



CHAPTER IIL 

HOW TO WEAR A CORSET. 

Wear it as it should be fitted and it improves the figure, sup- 
ports the back and adds to the health ; but a corset loses these 
good points if worn as a misfit. No one can have a perfect-fitting 
gown unless it is fitted over the corsets especially adapted to that 
figure. It is now conceded that five classes will describe the 
figures met with : Tall and slender, short and slender, very large 
in width and height, short and full-figured, the average woman 
about 36-inch bust, 24 waist, 42 hips, 5 feet 6 inches, weight 130 
to 140 pounds. 

To get the correct size for a corset measure the waistline 
snugly outside of the dress and take one three inches smaller. If 
necessary to build up the form, do so without the appearance of 
using artificial means. A light-weight flexible corset fits itself 
easily to the form, but a full figure needs a firmer corset than a 
slender woman requires, and for that reason the popular-priced 
corsets at $1 are not entirely advocated for women of unusual 
figures, who will find the higher-priced grades more serviceable 
for them, while others will find wonderful value in the "W. B." 
corset for $1, which gives the erect military bearing now so stylish. 

As a guide for the "W. B." corsets to buy, the following table 
is given : No. 973, at $1, is advocated for a tall, slender figure, 
with other corsets of the same cut, at $1.50. No. 926 is adapted 
for a short, slender figure, in the popular $1 class, with more 
elaborate designs at $1.50 and $2. No. 919, at $1, is especially 
recommended for the very large, stout woman, who will find 
corsets of a similar cut and effect and better materials at $1.50 to 
$5, and it pays a person with a full figure to buy corsets of a good 



price, as this figure is hard on a corset and needs durable boning 
and material. No. 989 for a short, full-figured woman may be 
had for $1, with better grades from $1.50 to $3. No. 924 is the 
article for the average figure, who finds the $1 corset "all her 
fancy painted," but higher grades are prepared at $1.50 to $3. 

The two illustrations in this chapter show the popular Nos. 
924 and 919 of the "W. B." corsets and the erect carriage they 
give, and in order to obtain the best results with such a corset, 
first find the waistline and fit the corset to it ; use two flat laces, 
silk or linen, and lace both from the center of the waistline, one 





up and the other down. For the first few days a corset should 
not be laced tightly; let it stretch a little and mold itself to the 
figure and then tighten the laces ; but a corset should not be worn 
so tight that the wearer cannot feel her body move in it. When 
necessary, alter the part over the hips by the lower lace only. 
Do not use a rubber lacing, as it stretches the dress seams. A 
corset steel will not press into the wearer if the correct corset is 
properly laced. Pull the strings on each side at the waistline after 
obtaining the waist ; the straight-front adjusts itself nicely over a 
flat abdomen ; if possessed of a full one, run a hand down the 
front of the corset from the top and gently lift it up into the 

16 



space created by the straight front at the waistline, and then tie 
the strings around the waist in front. 

You cannot lace a corset and keep it there; it must be untied 
every night, the laces loosened and the next morning the corset 
as carefully put on, waist and laces adjusted, as before. Give 
a few moments to this task and do it properly, your improved 
form amply repaying for all trouble. It is a part of woman's mis- 
sion to make herself as graceful and as healthful as possible, and 
the right corset, rightly put on, will do it. 

The medium-high bust allows Nature to act, but if the figure 
must be filled out use a light-weight shirt waist extender or wear 
the bust ruffles made of bobbinet, about three, sewed to the shield- 
shaped piece of lawn, with shoulder-straps of white tape; this 
can be washed and ironed, the ruffles being triple box-plaited and 
of single thickness, overlapping each other. Small hip-pads also 
build out the figure, and there are very few that a tiny bustle will 
not improve, as many are flat at the center-back, even when of a 
full figure. Any figure can be improved with the corset espe- 
cially adapted for the characteristics shown by that figure. A 
slender person can be "improved" with less trouble than a stout 
figure may be reduced, but do not despair, as each may be gradu- 
ally remodeled with patience, the corset and time. 

Keep two corsets and change for comfort and appearance. If 
inclined to grow round-shouldered, the erect effect given by the 
"W. B." cut will correct this. You can secure a longer waist 
with a straight front. A properly fitted corset truly "fits like a 
glove," does not show across the top outside of the gown, and 
feels perfectly comfortable. A corset hook sewn to the center- 
front two inches below the waistline is convenient for keeping the 
skirts low, cutting them down as a dip, and thus apparently reduc- 
ing the size of the waist and increasing its length. 

The Foster hose supporters may be worn in the front or over 
the sides, but worn they should be for their comfort and hygienic 
principles, as garters are passe from their discomfort and unheath- 
fulness, and as the hose supporters are arranged nowadays they 
greatly assist in keeping women healthful. Those fastening in 
front assist in keeping the corset pulled down over a large abdo- 
men, but many do not like this, and wear them on the 
sides over the hips, individual fancy governing the choice. 
The long-hipped corset is supposed to give a more slender 
appearance. 

17 



CHAPTER IV, 

TO CUT AND FIT A SKIRT. 

Six measures should be taken for a skirt, front, back, each 
side, waistline and around hips six inches below the waist and 
compare these with the May Manton paper pattern; do not alter 
the outline of your pattern ; if the pattern is too long or too short 
insert a piece at the kneeline or take from at the same place, 
keeping the shape as originally made by the designer top and 
bottom. Of course, what length you add to a gore is added to 
each and every one, and exactly at the same place. 

In fitting a stout figure, make the hips the objective point; 
pin the pattern around the hips, with the front gore dropped 
until it hangs straight, raising the back and sides so that the 
inverted plaits exactly meet at the center-back; then fit the seams 
to the waist and pin the belt on before trimming off the skirt. 
In dressmaking, it is convenient to have a lot of Sovran pins 
loose in a small sauce plate, as they are easy to pick up and the 
plate does not soon become misplaced. Finish the top of a 
skirt before the lower edge. 

To overcome the stretching of a circular-cut skirt or very 
sleazy materials, hang the garment on a form or hook for a few 
days until the material settles into shape, after stitching the 
seams and putting on the belt; then shape the bottom if it 
is uneven and finish the skirt. If your material is to be sponged 
do it before cutting it by putting a wet, not dripping, sheet over 
the wrong side and ironing it until perfectly dry, rubbing the iron 
in even up-and-down strokes. The seams are pressed before 
binding a skirt. 

For a slender person fit the skirt as before, though the front 
does not need the same drop, but the back edges are pinned 
together and the plaits laid to fall into straight lines, not to 
separate. If the skirt has hip darts, they are pinned in place on 
the wearer, stitched and pressed flat. To get the exact length 
of a walking skirt, which should hang even all around, tailors 
use a yardstick and measure from the floor up against the skirt, 
marking the proper height with chalk or a pin every few inches 
around; turn in on this line for basting, and try the skirt on 
again. 

Many heavy skirts are left unlined, being worn over a "drop" 
petticoat, and these skirts need half-inoh seams, which are 

is 



pressed open and each edge bound with a tiny bias strip of lining 
stitched on the machine. Raveling goods are safer with a 
French seam, also called bag — a tiny seam taken on the right 
side, turned to the wrong side and a second seam taken there, so 
there are no raw edges. Handsome silks, etc., have the edges 
bound with silk binding, or a strip of the lining; wash goods are 
overcast. 

In cutting out the dress goods, keep the "grain of the goods" 
even with the guiding marks on the pattern. A skirt should be 
of a light-weight, whether seamed in with the lining, or worn 
over a "drop"; the tailors advocate the former, the dressmakers 
the latter, and, personally, \ agree with the tailors that a seamed- 
in lining is easier to make, makes the outside wear better and is 
more convenient to wear, if the skirt has to be held up. In front, 
a dressy skirt just escapes the floor and has a dip at the back of 
5 to 15 inches; a walking skirt is 1^ to 2 inches above the floor 
all around. The manner of applying haircloth, the curved 
Paquin or straight, is explained in Chapter VIII, for seamed-in 
or ''drop" skirts. 

Another style has lining and outside made separate, seams 
pressed and then overcast, interlining sewed to the lining and 
the two caught together down each seam; or the outside is 
seamed up, the interlining basted to it, and each piece of lining 
basted down the scams, one edge even, the other and the upper 
one turned down and blindstitched neatly. Then the lower edge 
of the dress goods is turned under and the lining blindstitched 
to it. When selecting a cotton lining see that the Gilbert stamp 
is on the selvage; their fast-black linings are thoroughly known 
and relied upon. 

Two Granger hooks and eyes can be sewed half-way down 
the opening or placket hole at the back, which should be fully 
10 inches long, faced narrowly and plaited in with the lining and 
outside, which prevents any gaping. A favorite way of finishing 
the top of a skirt for a stout or short-waisted person is to simply 
pipe or cord the edge with a piece of the goods, which allows it 
to fall lower on the waistline. 

For a belt use the lining cut bias or straight, as the form 
needs, and this can only be ascertained by trying a band; if a 
"dip" is wished in front, and a moderate one is very becoming, 
cut 1£ inches as a V at the center front, sloping it toward the 
sides slightly. Put a stitch of white thread in the center of the 
belt and hold the skirt toward you when basting. Allow a lap 

19 



of 1-k inches at the back of the belt, fastening it with two Granger 
hooks and eyes of a large size sewed at the lower edge of the 
belt. A belt is sewed on the wrong side, turned over and in and 
stitched down on the right side, being f-inch wide when done. 
A heavy silk belt, if used, coming with woven edges, does not 
need turning in; some tailors face the top of a skirt with lining, 
apply a silk belt flatly to the right side and stitch it there, being- 
single. Put a loop of tape or lining on each side of the belt 
near the back to hang the skirt up by. 

A skirt of many gores adds to the apparent height. The 
binding of a skirt is sufficiently important to have a full explana- 
tion of the same. The S. H. & M. bias velveteen binding fits to 
any skirt, and is to be applied to the material itself or to the 
"drop," if that is worn sufficiently long to really protect the 
skirt. The easiest way of binding is to use the machine for the 
first sewing, though it is neater and more workmanlike to sew a 
binding on by hand. Lay the right side of the binding next to 
the right side of the goods and baste smoothly on, allowing a 
full inch of the dress goods and lining to turn up and a fourth of 
an inch of the binding. Stitch on the machine and turn the bind- 
ing and dress goods over on the wrong side, blindstitch the skirt 
down and baste the velveteen down near the edge, allowing the 
merest trifle of the folded edge to project evenly below the skirt 
itself. Then baste the raw edge of the binding down and hem it 
so that none of the stitches will show on the right side, or her- 
ringbone it down; run a row of hand-stitches on the wrong side, 
^ inch above the folded edge of velveteen. The Velvet Braid 
binding is applied flatly to the wrong side of the skirt, showing 
the velvet ^ inch below the edge, and the upper edge of braid 
hemmed down with Heminway's silk twist. The same directions 
will apply likewise to the brush braid bindings. 

The tailor's favorite manner of binding is to fold the bias 
velveteen binding in the middle and lay it against the right side 
of the skirt, with the raw edges even and the lining — not the 
interlining — left separate. After basting together stitch and turn 
the edges up, leaving the folded edge of velveteen to project 
nearly a fourth of an inch below the skirt. The lining is then 
basted down over the raw edges, hemmed, and a warm iron 
applied over a piece of thin crinoline, which saves the goods from 
any accidental scorching. While this manner of binding has 
many advocates, I must confess a preference for the first style 
described, in which the velveteen also answers for a narrow 

'20 



facing. Tailors also apply skirt braids in this manner, while 
dressmakers use them flat against the skirt and the upper edge 
hemmed down. In any case, see that the velveteen or braid is 
really a protection by being fully one-eighth of an inch below the 
dress edge. 

No matter how carefully a skirt is cut, fitted and made, it 
must be worn over corsets fitting correctly over the hips and 
abdomen, and over a properly made petticoat, which is the 
reason for drawing attention to the W. B. corset and Sorosis 
ready-made petticoat. If a "drop" lining is worn, it must be 
wide, as the skirts are now cut much wider and the extension' 
flounce needs the haircloth interlining to keep the dress from 
clinging about the feet. Many figures need a tiny bustle at the 
center-back to give a rounding form just below the waist, and 
the skirt should be fitted over it if worn. The long-hipped 
corsets will decrease the size of a full figure, and the skirt should 
be easy there, not "skin tight." 

The ruffles on "drop" skirts are accordion plaited, cut bias 
and hemmed or bound narrowly with velveteen to keep them 
fluffy. The plaiting cuts the material, but is pretty, of course; a 
bias ruffle needs once and a third more of the material than the 
space to be covered; accordion plaiting requires three times as 
much. Ruffles are often finished with pinked ruches, and these 
are especially attractive on "drops" of Pres de Soie lining, which 
wears well, looks better and feels best for such a general use. 
Sew skirt seams on the Singer machine, with a moderate ten- 
sion; baste these seams from the top down and hold the gored 
side next to you. 




21 



CHAPTER V. 

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW OF BLACK SILKS. 

The beauty of silk attire has never been doubted, and the 
woman has yet to be found who does not admire and wish for a 
silk gown, yet few realize what silk is in texture or know how 
to select it when buying'. Tt used to be said that black silk had 
to be bought on faith, and, in a measure, it has, but they show 
faith nowadays only when the material has been tried and 
proved worthy, and the wise woman looks for some proof to 
convince her that she is buying the best. 

Silk was known of by the Chinese many centuries B. C, and 
was then as now spun by the silk worm in long silken threads or 
filaments. Each cocoon averages 4,000 yards of this delicate 
filament, and about 400 are needed for a strand of sewing silk 
and yet some expect wear like leather of this dainty web. Silks 
used to wear and be treasured as heirlooms, but in these days of 
cheaper goods, "loading," etc., silk cannot endure such treat- 
ment unless it is purely silk, not gum and chemicals, and to get 
pure silk one must be prepared to pay for it $1 up for the 19- 
inch width and from $2.00 for the 36-inch width and get a piece 
bearing the stamp of "Moneybak" on the narrow ribbon sel- 
vage. 

No piece bears this name, taffeta or satin finish, that has not 
passed a strict examination and been pronounced flawless; the 
best of raw silk is procured, the finest weavers, best of dyers, 
no one can do more to turn out a perfectly satisfactory black- 
silk for a gown, waist, petticoat, trimming, long coat, short 
wraps, etc., for the use now ordered by Dame Fashion of black- 
silk has extended with time. Being of such perfect material this 
brand of silk is proof against rain and dust, as the former does 
not spot, the latter easily shakes off and it does not fade. 

In buying silk try to crumple it in the hand, then smooth it 
out, and if it wrinkles it is not going to prove very serviceable. 
Another test is to scrape diagonally across the silk with the 
thumb-nail. If all that it should be the threads will not slip; 
otherwise the nail will make a great space of loose threads. 
Pure silk has a clear, bright luster and a soft, firm texture or 
"feel," as buyers often say; it is also strong and should not tear 
easily, and, as a last resort, silk is sometimes tested by fire. If 
pure silk and dye it takes fire slowly and goes out very quickly. 

22 



But, alter all, such severe tests are not necessary when the 
shopper knows what brand she wants and sees the name woven 
on the selvage. 

One piece of advice I would like to impress on every reader: 
Do not buy black silk for a garment unless able to buy a good 
piece; do not think "how cheap can I get it," rather "how much 
can I put in the material" and get a satisfactory brand that will 
serve as a gown and then make over as a petticoat. Another 
word of warning: Do not buy indifferent silk for lining or petti- 
coats, for these get hard wear and do not have the care of a 
gown or a coat. A poorer grade of white or colored silk is 
allowable, for it is not the stand-by that a good black silk is. 

Black silk is now worn by women of every age, size and 
complexion and can be made becoming to all for all occasions 
by the skilful tailor or dressmaker; even the little girl of 4 years 
has her black silk coat, and very attractive she looks in it, too. 
\i all black is unbecoming, use cream or white lace, soft chiffon, 
a suggestion of pink or blue in the collar, etc., or trust in the 
hat to supply the keynote of color needed; a touch of jet is 
handsome on black silk, and black embroidered chiffon applique 
makes it appropriate for any but the deepest of mourning. In 
fact, if you know the possibilities of this wonderfully attractive 
fabric with a little manipulation it may be of universal use. 

A most useful garment is a "drop" petticoat made to wear 
with the fashionable unlined gowns, making it close-fitting 
about the hips, with a deep circular flounce, covered with over- 
lapping bias ruffles, gathered half as full again as the space to 
be covered. Deep accordion-plaited flounces, finished with a 
ruche of the same "Moneybak" taffeta, are also worn, but it is 
worth remembering that to plait silk means to subject it to very 
hard treatment with the plaiting and pressing of hot irons. 
Taffeta is best for a petticoat or lining, as it has the "stand-out" 
tendency, though the best now has a soft texture. 

This brand of taffeta and also the "Moneybak" peau de soie 
made by the same firm are used for the long and half-long coats 
that are worn unlined or lined with black or white silk, according 
to the season. The 36-inch width cuts to most excellent advan- 
tage for these garments, and with a handsome long coat a 
woman does not need such elaborate dresses, so it becomes 
economy in the end to have one. The coats are trimmed with 
silk galloon, cord pendants, ecru lace, a handsome lace collar, 
etc., but the better the silken fabric the less trimming does it 



need to set it off, for a handsome silk is admired for its own 
advantages. 

Tailors make stylish suits of a skirt and Eton jacket, long 
coat or half-long, close-fitting jacket. The genuine English suit 
is strictly tailor-made, only bands or stitching as trimming and 
blouse of the same or one of thinner goods, as a tucked crepe de 
Chine, black, white or colored. As this often seems too severe 
to our American ladies many of the suits are trimmed, plaited, 
etc., but the tailor effect is not lost and the costume is suitable 
for street wear, church, etc. Tailors also make shirt-waist 
dresses of taffeta for traveling, as a pure fabric easily shakes the 
dust. 

The dressmaker's shirt-waist gown is of another design, and 
in these days has ornamental hand-sewing on it, as fagoting, 
feather-stitching", etc.; linings all of white taffeta take as "to 
the manner born." Waist and skirt yokes, head of flounces and 
cuffs have the above trimming in black or white, and for a 
slender young girl a very chic frock of this kind is accordion- 
plaited all over with yokes and cuff's of the openwork in white. 
Dressmakers also trim these simple suits with a little tucking 
only, studying the wearer and designing for her individually. 

The convenience of an odd skirt of peau de soie or taffeta 
cannot be overestimated, for it is always ready, if made in a 
standard seven-gore style, and can be worn with any waist. 
This convenience will not fail to keep separate skirts and waists 
in vogue, but buy a good piece of silk for the purpose, for it will 
be expected to wear for all times and places. A waist of this 
kind should be rather simple in effect to escape the fleeting 
fashions; moderate effects, merely tucking and stitching, com- 
bine to form a standard garment that can be packed away for 
three months, shaken out and worn with satisfaction. 

The more elaborate gowns of rich, "stand-alone" taffeta for 
day functions, as weddings or luncheons or dinners, theaters, etc., 
are beautiful with black or white garniture, but the handsome 
background sets it off. One for a matron is of the "Moneybak" 
taffeta for a demi-train, full sleeves and graceful blouse with 
short yoke and front panel of white lace, edged with a tiny 
vine of jet; stole collar yoke in the same effects and deep cuffs, 
a girdle belt with jet buckle; the lower part of the skirt, blouse 
and sleeves were in tiny tucks. Another gown shows the same 
idea, but Cluny lace is used and dotted here and there with black 

24 



silk French knots, no jet, thus costing less money, but more of 
the wearer's time. 

Quite a conservative matron of GO has a "Moneybak" peau de 
soie with yoke and box-plaited panel of the goods, demi-train 
skirt with a circular flounce to the panel and a black silk galloon 
around yoke, down panel sides and as a heading to the flounce; 
blouse with deep yoke and high cuffs of the silk galloon over 
white silk and handsome cord pendants on each side of the 
front. A younger woman wears a peau de cygne with drop 
yoke of cream lace, lined only with chiffon, for evening, and 
vine-like trails of white lace over the skirt, running higher in 
front. 

For regular evening gowns some Frenchy costumes have 
transparent yoke and sleeves of jetted net or black lace, as the 
pure-black costume is very becoming to a golden or rosy 
blonde. A girl's evening dress for a stand-by is sensibly made 
of black taffeta or a thin satin-finished fabric, with demi-train 
skirt, no sleeves to mention and a low, round bodice and girdle 
that can be trimmed, according to circumstances, with a wreath 
of flowers, bertha ruffle of lace or a shaped bertha of allover lace 
or the classic drapery of tulle, held by flowers. One is never 
at a loss with such a gown to invent some new effect with it, 
and when the "best days" have been passed it becomes a lining 
for a black lace or net and gallantly makes a second record. 

Exquisite frocks are made for evening by girls able to em- 
broider, using their skill for flower pictures worked as a front 
panel or scattered trail around the skirt; ornament the waist and 
sleeves to correspond with lovely natural-colored blossoms and 
leaves. A black separate waist embroidered in black wheatears 
is very rich in appearance, and, if the material is of durable taf- 
feta, pays for the work in good service. 

Black is always refined in effect and a silken sheen is not only 
attractive, but generally becoming. If it is not, add the touch of 
lace or color lacking and all will be well. Every one now wears 
black silk, and the important objects are to procure a satisfac- 
tory brand and to fashion it in a stylish, becoming manner. 
Both of these objects are possible, and "he who runs may read," 
but first and last remember to treat silk as silk, not serge, and a 
reliable weave made of pure material will repay your confidence, 
but look for the ribbon selvage and name woven on it and I am 
confident that time and appreciation will confirm the above 
opinion of the queen of dress fabrics — silk. 

25 



CHAPTER VL 

CUTTING AND FITTING WAISTS. 

First get your pattern, one of May Manton's, and read the 
instructions on it: lay the pattern on the lining, which may be of 
taffeta silk, Gilbert's percaline, lawn, etc., as best suits the dress 
goods, and keep the waistline exactly on the grain of the lining, 
as every pattern has the straight line plainly marked. Do not 
cut out the darts until the waist is tried on, only mark them. 

The two-piece waist pattern shown in Fig. 1 is a wonderful 
convenience for linings and outsides as well, since tight-fitting 
bodices have become passe; the slightly rounded front edge can 
easily be increased if the figure needs extra room over the bust. 
( )n this pattern allow inch seams on the shoulders and at the 
underarm seams. Use a running stitch for the basting and a 
long needle ; hold the back toward you in basting the shoulders 
and "ease" this in the front a trifle ; meet the notches in basting 
and begin at the top of a seam to sew it. 

Here are a few hints regarding fitting, given by a tailor for 
jackets, but the ideas are also of advantage in waists: "If the 
garment fits poorly take the correct measures of the entire gar- 
ment, and recut according to these measures. When the fronts 
wrinkle across the chest near the armholes, take up a small V, in 
the lining only, running down from the armhole. Wrinkles under 
the arm prove that the armhole must be cut out more. If the back- 
over the shoulderblades is too wide, cut out the armholes. Do 
not fit in a hurry. Keep your mind on your work. Do not talk- 
to any one while you are fitting. Do not use a stuffed or a hard 
form for fitting, or the corsage will be too large, as the human 
figure gives, and a made figure does not." 

Use small, strong pins, like the Sovran, and pin a seam to- 
gether before basting it ; baste evenly, so that the line may prove 
a guide in the machine stitching, for which the easy-running 
Singer machine will be found competent for any material. Do 
not cut off the front edges until after the fitting and pin them up 
on the figure by putting the selvages together and the pins back. 
Commence at the waistline to pin, hook or button a dress and 
work up, smoothing all imperfections up toward the shoulders, 
as the French do. Sit down, stand up and bend over in a waist, 
as the fit may change with every position, and you want it to be 

26 



right in each. In fitting shoulders do not take more off of the 
back than the front, unless the figure is very hollow in front. 
Baste all seams straight, and remember that as a basque is basted 
so it will be stitched, and upon this depends the beauty of the 
curving seams. Keep the waistline as long as it is naturally, not 
longer, and make the darts near together at waistline, to give 
them a slender look. 

Face the front edges of a waist that is rounded out with a 
piece of lining 1\ inches wide cut the same shape as the edge. 
If the front edges are left straight an allowance can be made 
for hems there. A verv full figure may like the wrinkled effect 




Fie. 1. 




Fig 



illustrated in Fig. '1, where the lining is cut two inches longer 
than the pattern and the extra laid in the wrinkles at the waist- 
line. If you do not like the idea of these wrinkles, then do not 
allow any extra length for them. The illustration shows a lining 
for a full-busted person, basted and the wrinkles laid in the 
lining, half an inch above, the same distance below and at the 
waistline, in order to take the strain from the outside material 
and to keep it smooth. The front edge is rounded over the bust 
and a small, crosswise dart taken halfway between the neck and 
waist. Another dart is taken in diagonally at the armhole, and 
this one is often used with advantage, even though the person is 
not full busted. These two darts appear only in the lining, the 
outside being smooth over them. Do not be fitted in an old or 
ill-fitting corset and then expect the gown to set correctly. 

27 



After having fitted the lining and pinned it for necessary 
alterations, remove the bastings, mark where the stitching will 
be, cut out the two bust darts on each side and baste the lining 
to the outside. Put your first basting-thread exactly through 
the center of the waistline, keeping the grain of each material 
straight. Now baste in the tiny wrinkles at the waistline, not 
putting them in plaits, but in wrinkles between each basting 
stitch. Do not cut the neck low in front, or the collar will not 
fit. Do not cut the armholes out in a lavish manner until the last 
thing, as they are apt to stretch. If thin around the neck place a 
layer of wadding — the sheet variety — between the lining and dress, 
tacking it here and there to the lining. If two layers of wadding 
are used, the second one must be tapered down near the edges, 
and after stitching in the sleeves pull the wadding out of the 
seam, lest it be too clumsy. 




Fig. 3. 



Fig. 3 represents half of a flat paper pattern, necessary for 
only a very large figure, needing an extra side gore where many 
seams decrease the width ; the wrinkles in the lining, tiny darts 
and extra piece combined will fit the largest of figures. Some 
forms require fine haircloth (the Princess Featherweight) sewed 
on each side from the shoulder seam to the underarm seam, 
rounding it to fit in the armhole on the outer edge and allowing 
it to almost reach the collar on the inner side, then narrowing it 
down so that it is about nothing when it reaches the under seam. 
This takes in the hollow around the front of the arm and part of 
the collarbone, where the dress is very apt to wrinkle or "break," 

28- 



as it is styled by dressmakers, when the wearer moves. The hair- 
cloth is stiff enough to prevent this, and should be stitched on 
the lining between it and the outside fabric. 

In Fig. -J, half an ordinary four-piece pattern is shown with 
darts and back especially shaped to give a slender appearance, 
all parts carefully worked and perforations to point where the 
grain of the cloth is to be kept perfectly straight. Do not cut into 
cloth without a thought of economy ; extravagant cutters are not 
the best dressmakers. After the waist is fitted, with the outside 
basted on, the seams can be stitched barely ouside of the basting, 

using M. Heminway & 
Sons' sewing silk for both 
strength and neatness, as 
the inside of the waist 
must look well and the 
seams must hold. Stitch 
on the Singer machine 
with a tight tension and 
small stitch for waists and 
a long stitch for skirts. 

Overcast seams before 
pressing them (methods 
FlG ' 4 ' for this work are ex- 

plained in the tenth chapter). Use a small, slender iron for 
pressing seams. Turn the side form, shoulder seams to the front, 
and open the darts, the back, side and underarm seams. Do not 
press plush, velvet or cloth seams, but stand the iron on a table and 
run the seams quickly over the rounded end. With a tailor-made 
suit the pressing is half the success of the gown ; it is done with 
very heavy irons and by a man who nearly shapes the dress with 
his manipulations. It is said that tailors press or sponge cloths 
by laying a wet (not dripping) cloth on the wrong side of the 
goods and pressing it with a heavy hot iron until perfectly dry. 
Sleeves, collars, etc., are described in the chapter entitled "The 
Accessories of a Waist." Have your corset fitted before the 
waist is. 

The chief alterations in a waist, tight or blouse fit, are 
made in the shoulder or underarm seams ; keep the latter straight 
down the line of the shoulder, a long seam there giving the "drop" 
effect. If striped goods are used they must be matched for each 
front, sleeves, etc. Plaid goods have the blocks exactly matched 
or may be cut on the bias. Striped goods are also cut to form 

29 




a series of Vs down the center back and -front of a waist, requir- 
ing careful cutting and fitting as well as an abundance of the 
material. 

1 do not advise making up plaid ginghams on the bias, as they 
are apt to be pulled askew in the ironing. 

Waists and sleeves of such fabrics are made with the bag or 
French seams, which have the raw edges put together on the 
right side and a very narrow seam taken ; then they are turned to 
the wrong or inner side and another tiny seam taken. Wash 
waists are best lined, if at all, with a piece of the same goods or 
with white lawn. If one perspires freely there can be a deep 
yoke at least of the goods on the wrong side ; with others a re- 
enforcement around the armholes and down the side seams is 
sufficient. The round waists worn under the skirt should extend 
fully three inches below the waistline. The finishing of a waist 
requires a separate chapter, being a different class of work to 
the cutting, fitting and stitching. 



CHAPTER VIL 

THE ACCESSORIES OF A WAIST. 

The most important of these is a sleeve, and this is so varied 
in style that all cannot be described, but the flat paper pattern 
here illustrated gives the exact shape of the standard design in 
coat sleeves. Pin the paper pattern to the armhole before cut- 
ting into the goods, observing where the inner seam comes, as it 
should be on a straight line with the thumb with the arm hanging 
down straight ; get the elbow in the right place and then pin to the 
armhole; always keep a cushion of Sovran pins handy, for 
there is much of pinning in successful dressmaking. 

As a general rule to follow, remember to have a cross thread 
of your goods halfway between the elbow and shoulder, making 
the lower part bias. Very thin arms were improved by a layer of 
wadding between the elbow and shoulders when close-fitting 
sleeves were worn. Cuff's and epaulette trimming shorten arms. 
A narrow tape may be stitched around the armholes with the 
sleeve, which prevents any splitting across the front of the basque. 
The armholes are closely but loosely overcast ; the sleeve seams are 
clipped several times to prevent any drawing, overcast separately 
and pressed open if desired. 

Keep the pattern straight on the goods or the lower part will 



twist, this being one of the portions of a gown that cannot be 
askewed to save a few inches. Dresses nowadays require a goodly 
quantity of material, for each part is full and the shape of many 
pieces forbids twisting the pattern around in order to get it out of 
a scanty number of yards. The May Manton patterns are cut 
with economy, but not so scanty as to spoil their fit and style, the 
important requisites of a pattern. Line sleeves with the waist 
lining, a soft fabric being excellent for this, as it "fits in" better; 

the Gilbert linings are fancied for 
their colors, texture and adapt- 
ability. 

The wrist of the coat sleeve 
should be faced with a bias piece of 
silk the color of the dress or its 
trimmings and the inner seam left 
open for an inch to allow the hand 
to pass through. The sleeves must 
be pinned on the wearer, as some 
need the underarm seam nearer the 
front than others. Too tight a 
sleeve over the forearm makes the 
hands red. Never show the wrist- 
bone unless you have pretty hands, 
as shortened sleeves make them 
very conspicuous. Cuffs are being 
worn again and are interlined according to the material with 
haircloth, sleazy crinoline, canvas, or left soft and sometimes 
transparent, as of lace. In pressing facings rip the basting threads 
first ; cuffs shorten the apparent length of the arms, unless of the 
deep, Renaissance design — very long over the hands. 

In basting sleeves, meet the elbow notches and baste from there 
np and down ; if a sleeve is to be lengthened add the extra at the 
center, not at the lower or upper edge. Sleeves of striped fabrics 
should show the stripes perfectly straight down the center of the 
arm. Cuffs are neatly fastened with a small size of the Granger 
invisible hooks and eyes, which remain fastened and are really 
invisible. A frill of lace, using it always twice as full as the space 
to which it is gathered, finishes many home and dressy costumes 
and imparts a delicate appearance to the hands. It is not out of 
place, however, to leave the lower edge of any sleeve untrimmed. 
It is well to leave a seam three-quarters of an inch wide for 
the outside, and half an inch for the inside of a sleeve, in case it 

31 




has to be made larger. Some persons are noted for wearing out 
their sleeves, and these should buy enough for the second pair, 
as contrasting sleeves are no longer in vogue. The full bishop 
sleeve should be regulated in size according to the wearer, and 
the trimming selected with a view of its ultimate effect on the 
figure, pinning it on the one who is to wear it. 

The greater number of waists are now finished with an inch 
hand of silk or the material cut bias, straight or sloped to the 
neck, as forms and fancies differ ; this may be interlined with 
very thin crinoline, faced with silk and fastened in front with the 
Granger hook and eye, so that the edges just meet or the band is 
left soft for coolness. 

High, stiff collars are entirely out of style after ruining many 
a pretty throat ; 2 to 2^ inches forms the popular height and fancy, 
separate collars are now the choice and they are usually made over 
a foundation of bobbinet, featherbone, etc., to keep them light, as 
all sizes and several styles come ready made, fastening in the back 
with the tiny invisible hooks and eyes before referred to. If 
a collar is sewed to the dress neck, hold the latter toward you, 
but the general opinion is that a collar made entirely separate sets 
better. 

Fancy collars are a legion and change with the seasons, but 
at present the tab idea is the ruling one in this important 
accessory. When a plain stock-collar is worn, it requires a tiny 
"turn-over" or "protective" collar of lace, embroidery, etc., for 
neatness and becomingness, as a plain collar line is very severe. 
A collection of different collars enables one to make many 
changes with a plain, colored or black gown, and collar and belt 
sets thus sprung in vogue, especially for summer frocks. 

Velvet is always becoming in accessories, on account of its 
rich, flattering effect. If all seams and edges are properly basted 
the machine stitching will run just outside of the basting thread, 
and never begrudge using a good silk for stitching, one that does 
not knot or rough, matching the goods exactly, as can always 
be done with the Heminway range of colors in silk. 

Perfectly transparent collars and cuffs of lace are very dressy 
on silk or thin wool frocks and are lightly caught to a tiny, bias 
band, finishing the wrist, being themselves of allover lace, with 
a bias piping on all edges of velvet, silk, mousseline, etc., coral 
stitched with crochet silk, stiffened with two short, diagonal 
pieces of featherbone, back and front, and securely fastened with 
those dainty little invisible hooks and eyes. 

32 



Although not worn much now, except on jackets, revers are a 
boon to hollow-chested persons, as they fill up the space, and they 
are also becoming to full-busted women, as they detract from 
any oversize if pointed long and slender below the fullest part. 
They are of the dress goods or a contrasting material, and are 
finished with an edge of beading, braided, stitched in two rows on 
the machine, a delicate vine of lace appliqued on, etc. Revers can 
be made in so many shapes — square, pointed, continue over the 
shoulders to form epaulettes, etc. — that it is impossible to describe 
them all, but their making follows the same general lines. They 
should be interlined with haircloth. The outside material must 
be turned over the stiffening, caught down with a few long 
stitches and the silk or dress goods lining hemmed over this, an 
eighth of an inch from the edge. Cut all such accessories out of 
paper first and pin them on before a looking-glass until the 
proper position is found, using Sovran pins. 

Some revers are cut in one piece with the jacket fronts. If 
they start from the shoulder seam and taper to the waistline they 
are properly termed bretelles. Shawl revers have a rolled collar 
below a standing one that ends in short, wide revers over the bust 
without the notch or "step" that distinguishes a man's coat collar. 
This latter style has the revers part pointed to the turnover collar, 
which is sewed to the dress neck with the seam toward the inside, 
leaving the dress goods free to be hemmed down over the seam. 
The revers are seamed in at the end of the collar and sewed in the 
front edge of the jacket, with the same seaming or made entirely 
separate, finished up and then slightly lapped over the collar ends. 

A two-inch ribbon belt is becoming to nearly any figure, No. 
9 — 1^ inches — is fashionable this season. A slender, narrow 
buckle makes the waist smaller. There are many contrivances for 
holding skirts and waists together under a belt, but a Clinton 
safety-pin is always handy for this purpose. Keep your belt 
well pushed down in front, as it is one of the first signs of 
middle age for a belt to ride up at that part. The lighter colored 
the belt the larger the waist. The Empire belt is fitted around and 
above the waist, is three to seven inches wide, and in soft folds or 
flat. If the latter, it is covered with embroidery or beading and 
is only suitable for a slender figure, and is of the bodice form 
and requires the fine boning in front only or at the sides and back 
if very wide. The Pompeian belt of fancy ribbon, six to eight 
inches wide, is boned as a pointed girdle at the back, brought low 
in front in soft folds and fastened there with an odd brooch. 



S3 



There is another pretty belt for the flowered ribbons which 
crosses the front above the waistline in soft folds, is brought 
lower to the back, crossed there, carried to the front again low as 
a "dip" belt and knotted there with long ends hanging. Soft 
ribbon sashes in folds around the waist have two short loops 
pointing up at the back and two longer ones down, with half-long 
ends or down to the floor nearly, ending with a short loop knotted 
15 inches above the end. Sashes and fancy belts are tied on 
request at the large city stores, if the ribbon is bought there, and 
the variety of made belts was never surpassed, for a belt means a 
good deal on a gown of to-day. 

Yokes of lace, the goods in tucks, rows of trimming, etc., are 
small or deep and low over the shoulders as a drop. On a slender 
figure, something of shaped bertha effect is becoming, as is a large 
collar garniture. Flat vests have been put aside for collars, yokes 
and applied trimmings ; a narrow or V-shaped vest is occasionally 
seen and may be necessary for remodeling a waist, but the pre- 
vailing idea now in a waist is to have it gracefully loose and the 
trimming applied directly to the garment rather than as a separate 
accessory. 



CHAPTER VHL 

THE USE OF HAIRCLOTH. 

When the correct haircloth is obtained and then used properly 
in the skirts of to-day the wearer walks lightly and at ease, for 
there is no dragging about her heels of yards of goods, but from 
the interlining's effect the lower part of the skirt is held out and 
enables one to step freely in a graceful manner "envied by many 
and (formerly) obtained by few." Now, with the use of the 
Paquin interlining all is changed and the making of a skirt is 
easily accomplished. 

Firstly, haircloth has a niche of its own, nothing else will take 
its place. When the professional or amateur works with it as a 
friend the best of results are obtained, and in order to make this 
task an easy one the Paquin is woven in curved strips with a piece 
of linen between, the haircloth strip being 7£ inches deep, which 
can be turned under, top and bottom, to finish the interlining and 
no long, stiff hairs poke out as they used to do. 

Such haircloth is made of the best horsehair, is light in 
weight, elastic and resilient; it may bend, but it does not break 



and will keep its shape in damp and dry weather, and, like Truth, 
will ever rise again no matter how crushed. Health and comfort 
are aided by this dressmaker's accessory and style added to manv 
a skirt that otherwise would lack just the right "hang" that 
means so much to a woman desiring to look well and have the 
appearance of a perfectly gowned person. 

In using the Paquin to interline a skirt you can use the depth 
of the haircloth strip only, with an inch of the linen left on each 
side or have the depth of linen as well, but a 74-inch interlining 
is an excellent size ; cut the material out as it comes, it has the 
proper curve to fit any skirt, lap the ends of each width and 
stitch down over each side of them a narrow bias strip of lining 
or on one side only, using this for the outer side. 

When sufficient is joined for the skirt turn down the tinv 
edge at the top and baste the interlining to the skirt lining if it 
is a gored skirt "seamed lined." the lining being all seamed first ; 
then stitch the upper edge of interlining to the inner part of the 
lining across the top. leaving the lower part basted only. Put 
the dress skirt, which has the seams stitched, to the lining so that 
the raw edges of both come together and arrange the seams as 
described in the chapter devoted to the cutting of skirts. All 
skirts should be left at first fully an inch too long, then turn up the 
lower edge to the proper wearing length, the lining, interlining 
and outer material and finish with the usual binding, etc. 

For a skirt made with a "drop" lining the proper place for the 
interlining is on the "drop." Many ladies have two or three 
"drops" made as full petticoats to use under all skirts, others pre- 
fer the seamed-together lining, and this interlining is appropriate 
for either. Although sufficiently stiff to keep its place the curved 
and straight haircloth (known as the Princess Featherweight) 
can be sewed on any sewing machine. 

For a "drop" skirt apply the interlining on the inner side of 
the gores or the circular extension flounce as it may be fashioned, 
applying as before, and cover it with a facing of the "drop" ma- 
terial which will come next to the wearer. This one little addition 
will entirely transform the skirt and by holding it away from the 
wearer give it apparent lightness. As skirts are certainly grow- 
ing fuller it behooves one to look well into such little helps to 
personal comfort. 

The straight haircloth, Princess Featherweight, is "a friend 
in need" for cuffs, revers, as a staying band on the lower edge of 
a close-fitting basque, in some collarettes, bodice belts and numer- 



ous accessories where a pliable interlining is needed. Cuffs es- 
pecially are growing conspicuous on coats and waists, and per- 
fectly soft cuffs have neither style nor comfort — they need the one 
touch given by haircloth. 

Riding-habit bodices are interlined through the postilion or 
skirt part of the back, across the shoulders and chest, to give them 
the most exact fit without a wrinkle. All basques having box- 
plaited backs need this interlining to keep them in shape, so tailors 
appreciate its many good qualities and some forms have a far 
better appearance if haircloth is used in front of the armholes to 
prevent the "breaking'' that a figure hollow there indulges in. 
The straight haircloth (Princess Featherweight) is also bought 
by the yard and cut crosswise to fit any gores, bound with a 
strip of lining where flatly joined on each end, and also bound 
top and bottom, using a lightweight lining, with narrow bias 
strip, while the Paquin comes already curved. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE CORRECT USE OF VELVET. 

Some modistes and many home dressmakers claim to find 
velvet difficult to handle and therefore cannot use it to the fullest 
advantage ; all of this is easily obviated with a little knowledge 
and a modicum of common sense. Now that velvet is remarkably 
stylish for coats, costumes and waists and is universally soften- 
ing and flattering to the complexion no one can afford to slight it. 

As a trimming it enriches any fabric that it may be put with, 
as a separate waist the new "Boulevard" velvets are charming 
in dot and small figured patterns that promise great vogue this 
season and a great advantage in this brand is that it is now of 
fast colors. There is a close pile to this material and a large 
range of colors ; it cannot prove a risk to buy a velvet waist for 
it is ever la mode, but there are a few things to consider in 
manipulating velvet and I am going to tell you of them. 

Velvet garments have the pile running down and the pieces 
should be cut the same way of the goods or each part will cast a 
different shade. Have your thoughts on your work when cutting 
out a velvet garment, and in basting it use a fine needle and silk, 
as coarse cotton leaves an impression on the soft velvet pile or 

3G 



surface. When ripping out basting" threads cut them every inch, 
so as to have only a short piece to pull through. 

Use the small, sharp pins for fitting, and do not allow yourself 
the habit that even professional dressmakers sometimes have of 
putting in pins and taking them out, apparently at haphazard. Let 
each pin go into the waist, etc., with a purpose, and do not use 
any more than are absolutely necessary in velvet. Carefully stitch 
the seams, for one altered means a line in any velvet, even 
"Boulevard," which, by the way, is stamped on the back of every 
yard, so you can see for yourself if you receive what is asked 
for. 

To press the seams of a velvet garment stand a warm — not 
hot — iron on the large end and run the open or closed seams over 
the small, round end, after the slightest dampening possible of 
each seam. This prevents flattening the pile, as ironing would 
do. The material is an excellent wearing fabric, but give it care 
and it will repay you three-fold. If any part of the velvet be- 
comes creased, then steam it according to the directions given in 
the chapter on "Renovating Materials." 

In hemming a bias piece of velvet turn the hem down but 
once and blindstitch it along with stitches that catch on the under 
side only, never showing on the right side, from a half to an inch 
apart. Never work a buttonhole in velvet. When dusty, wipe 
velvet with an old silk handkerchief or brush with a soft whisk, 
called a velvet broom. If wet shake it well and hang in a cool 
room. If a grease spot gets on velvet rub it lightly with a little 
gasoline, remembering it is explosive. 

Velveteen gets hard wear, but that it will wash is news to 
many ; make a lather of Ivory soap and hot water, souse the 
velveteen up and down in this several times and then put it in two 
fresh, hot lathers and finally rinse through clear, warm water ; 
do not wring, hang on the line and about half dry, then have 
some one hold an end of the velveteen, you hold the other with the 
left hand and with the right hand take a hot iron and run over 
the wrong side of the goods, the steam raising the pile like a fresh 
piece. In the water when washing and rinsing put a teaspoonful 
of common salt to each quart of water. 

A velvet waist is not an expensive article to buy, as it can be 
worn with a silk or woolen skirt and does not require any trim- 
ming, or only a small quantity, and nowadays it is usually the 
elaborate garniture put on a garment that sends the price beyond 
medium-sized purses, not the actual material. White or black 



dots on a colored ground among the new "Boulevard" designs 
are stylishly fashioned in the tailored style, with stitched edges 
and handsome buttons, or more elaborate designs obtain for a 
more dressy blouse. 



CHAPTER X. 

FINISHING A WAIST. 

The manner of sewing on hooks and eyes adds much to the 
tit and general appearance of a waist and the articles to be used 
are many, but only one hook has the restraining curve in the 
bill, enabling the dressmaker to cover the greater part of the 
hook with the facing and not wear it when passing it over the 
eye. The Granger hook and eye is proving all that a dress- 
maker wishes it to be, as it stays where sewed and from the 
shape of the hook does not wear the facing and is smooth and 
strong. The invisible eyes made by the same firm are most con- 
venient for any portion of a garment to be lapped over, as they 
are concealed and can be used with any hook or with the Key- 
stone spring hook with the regular safety spring at the under 
part to keep it fastened. 

The lining of a bodice usually has a stay up each front edge 
to the height of the dart ; the hooks and eyes on the front edges 
are half an inch apart, hooks on the right side, and edges just 
meeting when hooks are fastened. On the left under side of this 
place the eyes, so that they barely project beyond the edge. Sew 
with five stitches in each loop and four on the right side of the 
large part of the eye, halfway to the top, and then pass on to the 
next one, without breaking the twist. For a neat finish cover the 
eyes with an inch facing of silk, cut bias and blindstitched, the 
turned edge coming nearly to the top of the eye, the latter being 
left free to catch the hook easily. 

On the right side the hooks are put back a trifle from the 
edge and are sewed with fine stitches in each small loop, taking 
them straight back, and at the top of the bill five more stitches 
are taken crosswise. The facing can then be put entirely over the 
hook to the top, as it cannot interfere with the safety curve at 
the top in this patent hook, and hemmed down. 

The invisible eyes and small hooks are preferred for a collar. 
cuffs, etc., as fastening a belt, a bertha or yoke opening on the 

38 



shoulder, etc. After the waist is evenly stitched on a Singer 
machine with Heminway silk trim the seams evenly and over- 
cast them, separating- each in two parts, as they are to be after- 
ward pressed open in the center. Seams are cut in scallops and 
loosely overcast with silk ; others are turned in and oversewed ; 
others, again, are bound with thin lutestring binding, though all 
are occasionally clipped, to prevent any drawing when the seams 
are pressed. The first method is the easiest, and is now followed 
by the best French and English dressmakers. Next press, using 
a bit of crinoline between the warm iron and lining. 

All seams are boned in the lining for a very full figure, others 
are now content with bones at the underarm seam, darts and 
front edges, boning to the top of the corset ; even a loose waist is 
improved with a few bones. If covered stays are used they are 
placed down the center of the opened seam, firmly caught, top 
and bottom, and herringboned with silk twist, reaching to within 
half an inch of the lower edge if a close-fitting waist and to the 
bottom of the waistline if a loose one. If featherbone is used it is 
stitched through the center to the lining, using a sewing-machine 
attachment to hold the bone in place. An uncovered stay like 
whalebone requires a bone casing run along the center of the seam 
the bone slipped in, a loop made at the ends of the casing to pro- 
tect the rounded edge of the bone, made by the dressmaker, and 
firmly secured in the center, top and bottom of the bone. 

A waist worn under the skirt only needs hemming on the 
lower edge; if worn outside the lower edge is turned up for half 
an inch, "stayed" with a narrow bias band of thin canvas and 
faced with a bias piece of silk or the dress goods, hemming it 
down. With a loose or "worn-in' waist stitch a tape at the out- 
side of the waistline in the back, about four inches across at the 
center; when on, bring this tape forward over the loose front, 
fasten low and tightly with a Clinton safety pin and arrange 
the fulness of the front then as the figure requires ; when the 
skirt is on fasten the back of its belt through this tape with a 
second safety pin and there will be no unsightly divorce 'twixt 
skirt and waist. 

1 f the waist is worn outside of the skirt, accomplish this union 
with two of my favorite eyes (the Granger) of a medium size 
sewed to the inside of the waist, a trifle above the waistline and 
each one inch from the center of the back; have two hooks at 
corresponding positions sewed to the skirt belt and the com- 
bination is effected. Sew buttons on with silk twist and work 



buttonholes with the same Heminway twist ; if a tailored button- 
hole, a strand of twist is carried around the edge while working 
the hole, and crossbars are worked on the end, if an ordinary 
buttonhole omit bars and strengthening thread. 

Use the best of dress shields to protect a waist, and when 
sewing them in put the needle through the extreme edge only of 
the shield ; the Omo shield contains no rubber, is noted for its 
hygienic qualities and perfectly odorless ; it is narrow for shirt 
waists, is of nainsook or silk covering, is large, with a short flap, 
curved to suit full figures, detachable, absorbent, etc., being ap- 
parently designed to suit every fancy and an excellent article 
Fasten a shield in a waist at the ends to the armhole and twice 
to the lining below, putting the shield in to incline more to the 
front, not to set straight down under the arm. In the chapters 
on renovating articles the cleansing of worn shields is referred 
to. 

The waist worn outside of the skirt requires a lining or belting 
belt which should be set so that its lower edge is quarter of an 
inch above the waistline, to keep the bodice down at the back. 
This is featherstitched with silk twist at the center back, side form 
and side gore seams, and in front should be a trifle tighter than 
the bodice, from which it takes the strain at the waistline, fasten- 
ing with two hooks and eyes. This kind of a waist frequently 
has an outside belt of the goods lined with sleazy canvas, slip- 
stitched to the lower part of the bodice so that it projects quarter 
of an inch below and finished with lapped, pointed ends in front, 
fastened with the patent invisible eyes and hooks before de- 
scribed, which are warranted not to rust. 

Tapes with which to hang a waist are sewed on in a loop to 
the armholes toward the lower back part. Cut out the armholes 
sufficiently to prevent any binding. A snug fit is never a tight 
one, especially in any one part, but even all over. As the corset 
fits so the waist will, and a corset fit is not a "golden apple," but 
within the reach of the greater number of women, as before said. 



40 



CHAPTER XL 

HEALTH AND STYLE. 

It seems to be the fad of many writers and talkers to prate 
of all fashionable gowning as being unhealthy, as though health 
and homeliness grew like twin cherries upon the same stalk. 
Fortunately, many women do not dress in a manner calculated 
to injure their health, but some always did so, and probably will 
continue in the same path, but in the meantime the race is 
improving, and, as a rule, women dress in a more healthful manner 
now than since the days of the classically garbed Grecian maiden. 

Health is the greatest blessing Providence can bestow upon 
a woman, yet there is sufficient original sin in human nature 
to implant the desire within the heart of every woman to look 
stylish and to dress becomingly as well as healthfully. The 
essence of style is a birthright and cannot be imparted, but 
proper materials and designs and becoming colors will give a 
gown a certain amount of style, especially if combined with a 
modicum of originality. As a general rule, do not anticipate 
fashions ; neither be too modest and fail to grasp an opportunity 
to have a pretty, stylish gown, which gives the wearer a feeling of 
universal good-fellowship with her sisters and adds to her confi- 
dence and happiness. 

Begin at the foundation and improve yourself with physical 
exercises that may add to or take from the form, diet if necessary, 
have daily sponge baths and use the Ne Plus Ultra Face Restorer, 
and be as young and strong as possible. Nowadays a woman is 
as young as she looks, and I believe in her keeping far behind 
Father Time, with the aid of a good face lotion, pure air, becoming 
and healthful dress. I do not advocate extravagance or the 
neglect of one's duties, but I also claim that it is a duty woman 
owes to herself to look as well and to keep as young as she can, 
and so take care of your complexion, and dress to suit after get- 
ting it in a good condition. 

Well-fitting underwear is necessary, and the all-wool of a light- 
weight is less bulky than other makes, and for this reason, the 
various union suits are popular. The proper corset has been dis- 
cussed in another chapter, and out of the variety offered by the 
"W. B." make every figure will find its fit. On the corset wear 
the Foster hose-supporter, which is made on hygienic principles, 
and may be had for the front or sides, keeping the hose in perfect 

41 



position, ditto the corset. The garter is so injurious in stopping 
the circulation of the blood, if worn sufficiently tight to keep the 
stocking smooth, that I need not say anything of its disadvantage. 
The shoes should be selected according to the shape of the 
feet, and not as the wearer wishes her feet to be ; if not born with 
a Spanish arch to the instep, wearing a shoe of this shape will 

not cultivate one. Lace shoes firmly 
over the instep, keeping the front 
from pushing forward. 

In the matter of muslin under- 
wear there are many minds regard- 
ing chemises versus underpetticoats 
and corset covers. The two latter 
take the place of the former and 
show less fulness at the waistline. 
Stout figures may have drawers 
and petticoat fitted to a deep yoke 
with a drawing-string from the 
side. Do not put buttons on a piece 
of underwear, except corset covers, 
unless you wish them to show 
through the dress at the waistline. 
As some dress skirts are made un- 
lined in order to secure lightness, 
numbers of women use a well-flared 
Sorosis petticoat for both a "drop" 
lining and petticoat. A ready-made 
petticoat of this make is sure to be 
well made, carefully fitted, of the 
newest shape and material, and thus 
secures the correct hang to the 
dress skirt which it could not have over an ill-fitting petticoat. 

There is nothing especially reforming about this style of dress, 
but it is light, warm, comfortable and can be suited to the indi- 
vidual needs and to present styles ; the latter are not to be held 
responsible for some of the queer designs seen ; these are the fan- 
cies of extreme taste, or rather of a lack of taste. Do not wear 
heavy skirts, use an interfacing of Paquin, and do not have a 
walking-skirt dragging on the ground. Never despair of having 
a style about your gowns and comfort as well ; many styles must 
be changed to suit the wearer which develops the individuality, 




and that is the greatest secret of the success of French modistes, 
who make fashion yield to the needs of the wearer. 

The figures illustrated in this article show the result of cor- 
rect and exaggerated dressing for a full figure, one being attired 
in a shirred waist and skirt, with unduly large sleeves, flared 
flounce, badly arranged hair, etc. The other figure of the same 
weight wears a skirt of long lines, waist of same effect, well 
lowered in front, medium sleeves, a straight-front corset and the 
hair arranged in a closer style, presenting an entirely different 
appearance to the one de- 
termined to wear shirring 
because it is fashionable, 
irrespective of her peculiar 
needs. 

A stylish tailor gown 
cannot be accomplished at 
home for any figure, as the 
finishing and make are not a 
dressmaker's but a tailor's 
work, but some of the 
ready-made fill every de- 
sire, and can be found in a 
large variety of colors, ma- 
terials and styles, as the 
Wooltex make, giving uni- 
versal satisfaction and solv- 
ing the question of stylish 
street gowns, for which the 
tailored suits are preemi- 
nent. Keep the extremities 
warm and the dress light 
and do not follow the ex- 
tremes of fashion, for they cannot fail to interfere with health. 
In the meantime, keep up with the reigning fashions, but adapt 
them to your especial needs. Just how to do this is one of the 
aims of this little book, as I claim that every woman should be 
garbed becomingly and healthfully ; it costs no more, will prove 
a rational manner of dressing and render the world more refined 
and artistic. 

Well-fitting gloves round out a stylish toilette for any occa- 
sion. If for traveling, shopping or outing, a pique glove is advis- 




able, as it is of a heavier kid and has a tailor-like finish that is 
especially suitable for such costumes. For visiting and dressy 
wear a fine glace kid is recommended in tan, brown, gray, mode, 

white, etc. For evening, white 
^^^ £*) glace or suede kid reign ever 

above all rivals, but sometimes 
very stylish black toilettes are 
finished by black suede gloves. 

While separate skirts and 
waists are not considered as 
stylish as entire costumes of one 
material, they are retained for 
their convenience and comfort, 
to which style is also added by 
the materials selected and the 
make, as is shown in the half- 
length illustration, made of 
striped Viyella flannel, which 
can be worn during any season 
with satisfaction, as it neither 
shrinks nor fades if treated in- 
telligently when washed. Here 
is a formula for washing it: Make a suds of Ivory soap and hot 
water, wash the fabric in the hands without rubbing soap on it, 
rinse in clear water of the same degree of heat, doing it all 
quickly to avoid soaking in water ; squeeze nearly dry in the 
wringer, hang it in the shade, and when almost dry iron with a 
thin protection, like old muslin, between the flannel and iron 
This soap is convenient to use in such "hurry" tasks, as it floats 
and remains in sight when needed. 

More of correct gowning is written of from a fabric point of 
view in another chapter, but I wish to impress here upon my 
readers the fact that health and style are a possible combination, 
do not prove expensive, may be made becoming, and add to the 
comfort and satisfaction of every woman attempting home dress- 
making, which can be made an interesting study or a tiresome 
task. 




i-j 



CHAPTER XIL 

BECOMING COLORS AND MATERIALS. 

What to wear and how to wear it, if known, transforms many 
a plain woman into one at least pretty enough to attract attention. 
It is no idle vanity to study individual needs and to bring out all 
good points unless the seeker after good looks does so to the 
detriment of her health and neglects important duties or cultivates 
extravagance and becomes a monument to selfishness. Find out 
what is becoming, and then cling to those shades, be they three 
or six. In these days of combinations of colors and materials 
many changes may be rung with even three colors for the ground- 
work. It costs no more to dress becomingly than to make a 
"guy" of yourself, and in the former case you will be happier, 
and thus diffuse more happiness around you. 

Some women never look loud, others jar in any bright color ; 
if you have not the taste to tell if an article suits you ask your 
dear friend to criticise it for you. Neatness does not mean prim- 
ness, but it does mean some order about the dress ; the picturesque, 
unkempt style looks well only in a picture and few of us are 
models. Frills and fancies suit a young or small woman while 
absurd on a Juno. It is easier to put on than to take away 
plumpness, therefore the stout woman must exercise more care 
for she cannot be hid. A woman growing passe owes it to 
herself to soften the touches of time and she must consult her 
complexion in order to do this. 

A sallow skin there hardly seems any excuse for when Ne Plus 
Ultra lotion, outdoor exercise and cold rubs will give a better com- 
plexion, but such things must be continued, not taken up as a pass- 
ing fancy. Gray hair is not unbecoming to a youthful face or soft, 
pink cheeks, otherwise it gives a duller tone to the general ap- 
pearance. An old test to discover what is becoming to the skin 
is to put the ungloved hand by the color, and if it looks well the 
face will. This loses force when we remember that many have 
whiter hands than complexions, and vice versa. Another plan is 
to dress in a shade that exactly matches the eyes, but this re- 
stricts the wardrobe to one color, and such gowns lack the spice 
of variety said to be necessary for our well being. 

A short, stout figure must not wear bright colors, a plaid, 
wide stripe or large designs. Narrow stripes, tiny patterns or 
very small checks will, however, cause such a person to look more 

45 



slender than a plain material, unless it is black. Rough materials 
must not be even looked at by such a figure for fear that the 
possessor might be tempted to buy them, and then regret it as 
long as the dress lasted. Such a figure looks best in dark colors, 
long lines, demi-train skirts and if inclined to flush, white should 
be about the neck as a finish. 

A stout woman that is tall has an easier task in dressing her 
figure, as it only requires condensing in width. Narrow and 
medium stripes (ditto figures), checks and plain goods may be 
used in dark and light shades. Avoid a mass of white, and if a 
white gown is worn during the summer, white being appropriate 
for all ages, select a ribbed pique or a corded dimity. Both of 
these types need the narrow belt and elongated bodice point and 
well-fitting garments, but their hair, eyes and complexions are also 
to be considered when buying a new gown. A bizarre style some- 
times "goes" in the house as a quaint conceit, but never in the 
street. 

Short, slender women can wear any color, but their lack of 
height prevents immense plaids, wide stripes and very large de- 
signs from being just what they want. The happy medium is 
better in every respect here in styles and designs. One thing to 
be remembered is that too broad effects cannot be successfully 
carried off by a woman under 5 feet 4 inches, no matter what the 
reigning fashions may be. 

The tall, not-too-slender woman of about 5 feet 7 inches, and 
weighing 140 to 150 pounds, is the one that it is a delight to dress, 
especially if she has a good walk, round waistline and long waist ; 
of course, before 30 I would not wish her such a weight, and in 
any case moderately slender women look younger than those with 
large waists and broad hips. 

The very slender woman can wear anything for she can "make 
up" and adopt the loose styles of dress to her own especial wants. 
A few general rules can be followed by every one, but many 
correspondents ask what colors suit their hair. Now, unless the 
hair be red, I do not notice it, only the skin and eyes. The skin 
with a color can wear what the same degree of fairness if pale 
cannot touch. What I call a good day skin looks well at any 
time, others light up only at night and are really dull in the glare 
of the sun. 

Navy blue has an old effect upon any skin, except a fresh, 
rosy blonde, and brings out lines hitherto invisible to any eyes, 
but if a touch of pink or red is put with it the whole effect is 

*6 



pleasing. Old rose is rather a passe color just now, but it is lovely 
for all that and combines beautifully with black, gray, white and 
brown. It can be worn by a drab blonde, brune blonde, rosy and 
sallow brunette. 

The pink and white blonde with blue eyes can wear white, 
cream, black, light gray, turquoise, baby blue, navy, Nile green, 
lavender, purple, dark brown or rich red ; if her eyes are on the 
greenish cast she may wear any greens, but not baby blue or navy. 
There are not many violet-eyed blondes, but they can wear 
deeper shades of the above, violet, heliotrope and pale pink. The 
blonde with hazel eyes wears the colors given to brune-blondes, 
and all blondes can wear red and pink if the latter is as pale as a 
blush rose and the former of a deep wine red or a coppery glow, 
which is so becoming to red hair. Mauve is becoming to a clear 
blonde and occasionally to a rosy brunette. 

Red-haired women usually have clear complexions, but from 
the nature of the hair let them flee from emerald green, yellow, 
pink, light red, light purple, golden tan and pinkish gray. Black, 
cream, pale and dark green, light and navy blue, violet, turquoise, 
gray and nut brown are becoming for the Titian-red locks, as 
well as deep coppery-red tints. 

What is known as a brune-blonde (neither light or dark) 
can wear almost any color, but if sallow avoid emerald, yellow- 
green, grayish-tan, steel-gray, clear white or brick-red. A golden- 
tan is becoming to a sallow skin also a pale yellow. This latter 
color is a powerful factor for good and for evil ; only a sallow 
brunette can wear orange, a pale yellow is worn by a blonde of a 
like skin and she may be able to wear it at night and not by day. 

There is a light-brown type, skin, eyes and hair, the latter 
having golden glints in it, and often the eyes, too, take on yellow- 
ish or goldstone gleams ; with a creamy skin this interesting 
woman, who usually has Spanish or French blood in her veins, 
can wear all browns, cream, deep pink, yellow, red, even cherry, 
ivory and black with a touch of delicate pink. 

The rosy brunette may wear with satisfaction cream, pale 
blue, pink of every shade, ditto red, clear and reddish purple, 
yellow of every shade, navy blue combined with pink or red, 
brown of every tint, pinkish gray, ditto mauve, and dark green, 
the latter needing gold or red to brighten it, and pale gold with 
black is handsome on this type. She can wear bright, deep and 
delicate tones if no olive lurks in the complexion ; golden-tan is 
becoming to a brunette of this cast, also ecru ; but there are many 

47 



shades called ecru, and all types are safe in avoiding the dull ashen 
tone thus wrongfully named. 

A sallow brunette needs warm tones to supply the rosy flush 
denied by nature. Let her avoid all blues, gray, violet, green and 
white. Yellow, orange, deep and rose pink, bright and dark red, 
golden and reddish browns and reddish purple are the shades 
for such a skin. Black is also becoming when combined with 
pink or gold. She may wear pinkish-gray with the one touch 
of pink that transforms many a complexion ; the creams worn 
should be almost yellowish in effect ; even ivory would require 
pink flowers if worn in the evening and it should not be attempted 
during the day. 

Black and white is not becoming to a pale or dull face. Warm 
colors seem to increase the size. Genuinely elderly women dress 
to match the age of the face, not the gray of the hair. It does 
not mean more money to dress in a harmonious style, the artistic 
need not be eccentric or startling, but it is, rightfully applied, a 
vast improvement to us poor mortals. 



CHAPTER XIIL 

MATERNITY GOWNS. 

There is a constant complaint among ladies that magazines do 
not pay sufficient attention to this style of costume, which must be 
worn, nevertheless. A gown for this purpose must be perfectly 
comfortable, look well — as I have said before, I believe in women 
dressing as well as their circumstances will allow — and also con- 
ceal the figure in a measure. It need not be out of fashion if only 
a few rules are followed, as finishing the fronts of the lining with 
lacings to allow for expansion, the loose outside not requiring 
them, and cutting the skirt with a wider and longer front gore 
and putting in a drawing string in place of a belt. In the cata- 
logue of May Manton patterns will be found quite a variety of 
designs for such needs. 

Dress so as to combine light weight and comfort; wear an 
easy-fitting, soft-boned "W. B." corset and the Foster hose sup- 
porter, and keep the figure without injuring the health ; the under- 
clothes should be fitted to yokes, as they take up less room than 
gathers, and a "drop" petticoat, like the Sorosis, worn under a 

48 



light skirt, securing a smoothly fitted top and well-flared lower 
part to this important garment. Keep free from many bands and 
undue weight. Keep up the appearance with the Ne Plus Ultra 
Face Restorer, as the complexion is apt to fare badly, and there is 
no reason why it should not be cared for, and be cheerful, for 
cheerfulness is a wonderful retainer and restorer of youth. 

As for the dress itself, there is usually provision made for a 
home gown, one for the street and one for nicer wear. The street 
suit should be of an inconspicuous color and either of a plain or 
mixed material. The indistinctly striped cheviots, mixed tweeds 
and Priestley cravenettes are excellent for this with braid trim- 
ming. The skirt should be of a fashionable style, interlined with 
Paquin. Be careful to allow for any "hiking" or uplifting at the 
center front. The top of the front width should be curved up 
instead of down and sewed to the belt, with a few gathers in 
order to have an easy fit over the abdomen. Run a drawing 
string in the top of the skirt at the back or allow a large lap-over 
on the band, to provide for its enlargement. 

If a tailored street gown is considered the make known as 
Wooltex offers suitable materials, colors and careful finishings in 
different grades of fabrics. The coat styles will prove becoming 
with their long lines, and the least conspicuous trimming will be 
braid, stitched edges or a silk collar, cuffs, etc. A full-length coat, 
half-fitting, can be of "Moneybak" black taffeta or navy, Oxford 
or olive cravenette, and will be found convenient for walking, 
driving or traveling. Dark colors and black are recommended 
as having the effect of apparently decreasing the size. 

For morning wear a dressing sacque of Viyella, flannelette, 
cotton goods, cashmere, etc., with an old skirt or a loose wrapper, 
may be donned. For the afternoon nothing is neater or more 
comfortable than a teagown, which is one of the most convenient 
fashions that our English cousins ever sent over to us ; it may be 
of plain or figured woolen goods, Japanese silk, flannelette, lawn, 
etc., according to the season and the purse. With some lace and 
ribbons such a gown is easily trimmed, and is usually of the loose 
Empire style, half princess fitting, with a Watteau back, etc., large 
sleeves and a dip back to secure the "long lines" now in vogue. 

Fancy negligee sacques are of challie, remnants of albatross 
or the light striped Viyella that does not require a lining, and 
may be simply trimmed with featherstitched edges done with 
Heminway's crochet silk in a similar or contrasting shade. 
Always keep a round waist and back of a skirt closely con- 

49 



nected with the Clinton safety-pin, as a drooping skirt and 
lifted waist possess neither style nor comfort, and should never 
be divorced. 

Dressy costumes are of some material that will pay to make 
over afterward, as a black wool or silk and wool, a black "Money- 
bak" silk, a net lined with taffeta of this brand of silk, etc. A 
simple style is best, demi-train, rich fiat trimming, as lace or 
passementerie in lengthwise effects. A touch of trimming in the 
form of "Boulevard" velvet is always in good taste for a woolen 
gown. 

All of this style of dress is not of the so-called "dress reform" 
school, but it combines light weight, comfort, warmth, utility and 
a decent appearance, which traits many reform ideas do not 
include. I believe in reforming dress, inasmuch as health and 
comfort demand the above essentials, but I cannot see the need of 
making oneself look like a "guy," under any circumstances. At 
this trying time every woman wants comfort, and at the same time 
her natural good sense and modesty demand a gown that will 
render her less conspicuous, and these points are kept in view 
when describing costumes, making them conservative in fabrics, 
styles and color; for this reason black is popular with a touch of 
color, as it never seems prominent among costumes, and yet always 
presents a woman as well dressed. 




vO 



CHAPTER XIV. 



ORNAMENTAL HAND-SEWING. 

Of late the use of ornamental stitching in dressmaking has 
become a pronounced fad, and enables the modiste and amateur 
alike to accomplish beautiful effects at a small expense. These 
stitches are easily learned, which cannot be said of elaborate 
embroidery, and are illustrated sufficiently for any one to be self 
taught. The proper working materials will add greatly to the 
work, and for the fagoting, coral stitch, knot, etc., nothing can 
surpass the crochet and twisted silks of the M. Heminway & 
Sons Silk Company, noted for their luster, evenness and rich 
coloring. They are now also made in the fashionable dress 
shades, enabling one to ornament her gown with an exact match 
in the way of decorative work. 

Edges are buttonholed or finished with the various feather 
stitches shown in illustration No. 1 of this article, which are of 
the narrow designs. The irregular stitch of No. 1 of this collection 
is known as the cat for some unknown reason. No. 2 is a herring- 
bone, which may be used on an edge or answer to connect edges, 
as it is really a species of the fagot stitch. Nos. 3 and 6 are decid- 
edly coral stitches of the 
feather family, and are among 
the prettiest decorations for 
finishing bands and edges. 

Nos. -i and 7 are of the 
fagot order of stitches, now 
especially used for connect- 
ing seams, bands, tiny bias 
strips, etc., in neckwear and 
dressmaking; properly speak- 
ing, these two illustrations are 
the plain and twisted Russian 
stitches, and, though shown 
caught in rows of buttonhol- 
ing, they are usually carried 
back and forth from the edge 
of the dress material. No. 5 
is a genuine feather stitch, 
and No. 8 is called a brier 
stitch, though one is perfectly 




correct to style Nos. 4 and 1 fagot and the others feather stitches. 
Beautiful effects are obtained with the twisted silk for feather 
stitches on silk, crepe de Chine and woolen gowns, and fagoting 
with crochet silk, both of the Heminway brand. 
The illustrations plainly show how the work is 
done; the stitches are to be firmly made, but not 
drawn, and, according to present fashions, the 
silk must be of an artistic match, white, or, oc- 
casionally, black. 

The 9th figure shows a small piece of hem- 
stitching which may be wide or narrow, as it may 
be for a band of openwork or merely to fasten 
down a hem, indicating, in any case, the necessity 
of pulling threads from the material. This stitch 
appears on fancy linen articles — centerpieces, 
sideboard covers, etc., on tucking, ruffles, etc., of ornamental dress- 
making — and too tightly a pulled stitch must be guarded against. 
A combination of stitches often can be used with excellent 




Fig. 2. 



effect, as in Fig. 2, 
stitch and French 
a stripe to divide clus 
front and sleeves of a 
knot bring up the 
crochet silk just where 
hold the strand in the 
around the needle one 
size of the knot is to 
needle through the 




Jig. 



where the feather 
knot are arranged as 
ters of tucks on the 
silk waist. For the 
needle threaded with 
the knot is wished ; 
left hand and twist it 
to four times, as the 
be, and return the 
foundation near where 



it comes up, keeping the twists in order until the knot is thus 
formed and secured. 

The knot alone is a most use- 
ful decoration for dotting a plain 
surface, filling out laces and ap- 
pliques, etc. It is really easier to 
say what not to use such orna- 
mentation on than to decide a lim- 
ited amount of use for it. Sev- 
eral lace stitches are used in the 
openwork medallions that form 
entire yokes or inlays on a bodice 
or skirt as lace motifs are ap- 
plied. These pieces show a web Fig. 4. 



I 





center, done with silk, according to the fabric, as crochet, twisted 
silk or Japan etching silk, and a Greek cross or rosette center, 
finished with a tiny bias band that is fagoted to another band, 
and these, in turn, often have knots or feather stitching over them. 

The motif shown in Fig. 3 is used as medallions are, and is 
made in a half feather stitch, with the outer edge spread to keep 
the circular outline, 
using crochet silk 
which spreads a trifle 
when worked. Fig. 
4 gives a method of 
scalloping edges with 
the ordinary button- 
hole stitch, padding 
with a few short un- 
derstitches if neces- 
sary. Such a finish 
can be used on dress- 
ing sacques, flannel 

petticoats, silk ruffles on silk petticoats, infants' 
wear, fancy work and a host of articles for 
the wardrobe, table, etc. 

A useful motif is the crow's foot, used by 
tailors to finish seams, pockets, buttonholes, 
etc. It is triangular in shape and solidly cov- 
ered with stitches. Bring the needle up at 
the lower left corner, carry it to the upper 
point, bring it up again at this latter point, and 
carry to the right corner, bring it up at the 
same and cross to the left corner, always keep- 
ing up the same rotation with the stitches. 
The stars used for filling spaces are of fine 
stitches, all crossing at the center. 

Do not rough up your silk ; use moderately long strands, wash 
embroidery with Ivory soap and cultivate even work in all fancy 
stitches and both evenness and artistic shading in regular embroid- 
ery or "needle pictures." The last figure shows the oxhorn stitch, 
and is divided into steps, as the Fig. 1 are the horns as first made ; 
2, manner of inserting needle for the tie ; 3 shows the needle mak- 
ing the chain, and 4 the finished stitch, which can be used as any 
feather stitch would be. 

Care and experience will bring forth attractive results with 

53 




Fig. 5. 



the fancy stitches, which are within the reach of all workers, while 
skilled embroidery is a gift, cultivated though it may be. Silk, 
cashmere, crepe de Chine, Viyella flannel, albatross, etc., in white 
and colors, are decorated with outline and solid stitches and the 
two combined; embroidery in one color of silk; the best silks for 
all materials are those of Heminway & Sons, as Japan floss for silk 
fabrics, Spanish floss especially for fine work, and Japan etching 
silk and Turkish floss for the woolen materials before named. 

In the regular embroidery entire evening gowns, waists, parts 
of dresses, as bands, cuffs, bertha, etc., are thus decorated, and if 
the home worker is proficient in this art exquisite results are 
obtained for a moderate sum. Artistic designs are now found 
among stamping patterns, and many of the stores also have 
designs made to order of any shape or idea, and the only wonder 
is how we have done so long without using more extensively the 
art of embroidery in home and professional dressmaking; now 
all seem awake to its possibilities, and the air is full of the work 
of the skilful needlewoman once more. 




CHAPTER XV. 

TO RENOVATE MATERIALS. 

Before commencing to clean, renovate and make over any 
material decide to do it thoroughly and be sure that the article is in 
sufficiently good repair now to repay future efforts, otherwise put 
it in the rag bag and give the busy woman a rest. Rip up the 
goods with a sharp pen-knife and pull all of the cut threads out. 
Shake each piece well, and dust silken fabrics with a piece of 
flannel or old silk handkerchief ; woolen materials need a whisk- 
broom and more strength for the brushing. 

First and last, remember that naphtha, benzine and alcohol are 
all explosives when used near a fire or light. After cleaning ma- 
terials with these hang them in the open air for the disagreeable 
fumes to evaporate, but if colored, do not hang in the sun or they 
will dry in streaks. Clean with a piece of the same fabric, if pos- 
sible, or at least with one of the same color, but do not use such 
dangerous liquids unless all others fail ; in any case, try first Ivory 
soap ; that cannot hurt any fabric and has well been called "the 
universal cleaner;" if explosives are tried be very cautious with 
them. 

If the hands are roughened with the use of cleaning waters, 
etc., use a vegetable oil soap, like the Ivory, and counteract all 
such effects. I will not advocate the use of old linings, as, when 
washed, they shrink out of shape and a dress cannot be properly 
fitted over an askew lining. Wash and iron the linings and cut 
them down for children's frocks only. When sponging any ma- 
terial do it with downward strokes, using a wad of the same or 
similar goods. When washing goods in a lather of pure soap and 
water do not rub soap on the entire material, only on the very 
much soiled places, and if a delicate fabric do not rub on the 
wash-board. 

Black silk is the most encouraging of materials to clean, as it 
repays every stroke of the labor put upon it, particularly if of a 
good brand, as the Moneybak taffeta, and equal to a second reno- 
vating, coming out "almaist as gude as new." If silk has to be 
ironed place a piece of sleazy crinoline or old thin muslin between 
the iron and material. If silk can be turned always sponge what 
will be the outer side. Always snip selvage edges here and there 
to prevent drawing when wet. Silk should drip dry and the 
pieces must not be folded. If silk is simply badly creased dip it in 



a bowl of naphtha and hang out in the air to dry. A French dyer 
says : "Sponge both sides of black silk with spirits of wine and 
iron on the wrong side." 

When the silk is soiled from wear, dusty and limp, souse it in a 
suds of Ivory soap and warm water, rinse in clear water, hang 
out to dry and while still damp iron with a moderately warm 
iron on the wrong side. There are several fluids for sponging 
black silk, and all are excellent : Equal parts of warm water and 
alcohol ; cold coffee, made strong and well strained ; stale beer ; 
water in which an old black glace kid glove has been boiled, using 
a pint of water to a glove and boiling it down to half of that 
quantity; strain this pulpy mass, adding a little clear water if 
too thick ; sponge with this ; responge with clear water ; partly dry 
and iron. One can also dry without ironing by pinning the wet 
pieces to clean sheets spread on a carpet in an unused room. 

Borax and water is a fancied sponging fluid with some, using 
a teaspoonful to a pint of water. Black satin that has worn shiny 
may be dipped in naphtha and hung out ; the material should not 
be sponged, as it destroys the surface of this fabric. An excellent 
authority speaks of sponging dirty, greasy looking silk on both 
sides with a warm Ivory soap suds, wiping off the suds with a 
fresh wad of silk, shaking and drying without ironing. A strong 
decoction of ivy leaves cleans black silk. The simplest plan is 
often the best, so try soap and water first. 

Remove any grease spots before commencing with the spong- 
ing of either black or colored silks, using a lump of magnesia, 
and rubbing it on well if the color will endure water ; or tear a 
visiting-card apart, and with the soft inside part rub and the 
grease will disappear. French chalk removes grease and does 
not injure colored silks. Scrape a little on the spot, rub it in, 
and let it remain twenty-four hours, and then brush it off. Re- 
peat the process, if necessary ; some grease spots are hard to 
remove. 

Black ribbons are cleaned just as black silk is, and may be 
ironed or rolled smoothly over a broom-handle until dry. If 
the ribbon is really soiled, brush it softly or sponge it with a 
tablespoonful each of alcohol, soft soap and molasses ; mix well, 
and after using as a cleanser rinse the ribbon in cold water ; roll 
up in an old piece of cloth, and iron when partly dry with a 
moderately hot iron. Black ribbons may be renovated by sponging 
them with a mixture of one-third alcohol to two-thirds water. 
When partly dry iron them under a piece of black crinoline. 

66 



Ribbons are steamed by passing over a wet cloth thrown over 
a hot iron. To insure the steam going thoroughly through the 
creases hold a wad of dry cloth over the ribbon, with it smoothing 
out the creases. This works much better than a brush. Use clean, 
white cotton cloths. Some taffeta ribbons will not come out well 
by anything but pressing, with a wet cloth over. If stiff, pull out 
on the bias. Treat silks the same way. Dip colored ribbons 
into a bowl of naphtha to clean quickly ; also silk throws or scarfs 
and neckties are renewed in the same manner. Also try them in 
the warm soapsuds previously described. 

A very hot iron often discolors silk. If a white silk handker- 
chief was ironed with a medium iron and with a linen handkerchief 
between the iron and silk, the latter would not yellow. Clean 
colored silk with water in which a kid glove the color of the silk 
has been boiled, using a new tin pan to boil it in ; strain and add a 
little hot water and ammonia. Wash in this and put half a tea- 
spoonful each of borax and spirits of camphor to a quart of the 
rinsing water and hang each piece up until it dries, but do not 
iron. Colored silks are the most difficult to attempt improving, 
but grease spots are removed with French chalk, or rub over the 
stain a piece of wet magnesia ; let it dry, and dust off. Ether is 
also used on colored silk. 

Never rub silk vigorously. Japanese, China, India and pongee 
silks are freshened by washing in warm Ivory soapsuds, rinsing 
quickly and drying in the shade, rolled in a sheet for several hours 
and then ironed on the wrong side. Keep white silk wrapped up in 
blue tissue paper, and it is not likely to yellow, but if it does, use 
it cream-colored, as trying to bleach it is simply ruinous. Am- 
monia restores the color destroyed by fruit stains, but in turn 
often leaves a ring stain, which may be removed with naphtha or 
chalk, though the writer's personal experience is not encouraging 
when meddling with colored silks. It is one of the things in life 
that the more experience you have with it the less you think you 
know of it. 

If velvet is badly marred and will not steam up in a satisfac- 
tory manner, transform it into miroir velvet by ironing it the way 
of the nap, moving the iron constantly. Velveteen and plush can 
be treated in the same manner and naturally a good velvet, as 
"Boulevard," comes out better after such a process than a poorer 
material. All of the above fabrics are steamed in the same man- 
ner, using a whisk-broom, a pan of boiling water, and an obliging 
friend who will brush up the nap as you hold the goods taut over 

57 



the steam the wrong side to the wafer. These materials will look 
like new. This process removes wrinkles, brightens the color 
and makes the crushed nap stay up when brushed against the 
grain, and will answer for black or colored pile fabrics. If the 
velvet has a grease spot on it remove it with French chalk before 
steaming. A sticky spot may be lightly touched with clean, cold 
water before the steaming process is resorted to. 

Black woolen goods, as serge, cheviot, cashmere, henrietta, 
etc., are easily cleaned. First remove the grease spots with 
naphtha, remembering that this fluid is very explosive when ex- 
posed to either a lamp or fire. Clean mud and ordinary spots from 
a black dress with a rag of the same wet with warm water and 
soap. Never rub on the washboard a silk or woolen fabric that 
is being renovated, nor wring it tightly by twisting in the hands ; 
either put it through a wringer or pat it nearly dry between the 
hands. To clean black goods make a lather of warm soapsuds, 
using a good soap without free alkali, like the Ivory, as a strong 
soap will ruin the goods, and a teaspoonful of borax to every two 
quarts of water. Into this dip the goods up and down and wash 
between the hands ; then wring gently and pat partly dry ; hang 
in the shade, and when nearly dry iron on the wrong side with a 
moderately warm iron. Always rinse once in lukewarm water, 
and iron until the material is perfectly dry. Wash alpaca in the 
same manner as above, adding a little gum-arabic to the rinsing 
water. 

Paint is removed with benzine, and if the latter leaves a stain 
like water use French chalk on it. Water stains are frequently 
removed if the spot is rubbed perfectly dry at once. 

Ammonia often turns black goods gray, yet we repeatedly see 
it recommended for cleaning spots, diluting it with warm water. 
When black goods simply look rusty sponge them on the right 
side with a wad of the fabric dipped in equal parts of alcohol 
and warm water, and when nearly dry iron on the wrong side until 
perfectly dry. If mud leaves a stain after it has dried and been 
brushed off rub it with a wad of black goods dipped in Ivory soap- 
suds. After ironing black woolens fold a full width down the 
center as in new goods. 

A good washing fluid for black woolens consists of soapsuds 
with a teaspoonful of borax to every two quarts. Souse the goods 
in this warm suds and rinse in very blue water ; then dry and 
iron, as directed above. 

If silk warp woolen goods begin to shine, part of it may be 

68 



removed with the sponging of alcohol and water, but the shine 
soon returns and is only entirely removed with redying the fabric, 
as the shine comes from the wool wearing away, exposing the 
silk in the warp. 

Remove grease from colored cashmere with French chalk. 
Rub it on the spot, then let it remain over night, and in the 
morning brush off; if necessary repeat the treatment. Wash a 
colored woolen fabric, as cashmere or serge, in warm water, put- 
ting a teaspoonful each of beef's gall and ammonia to a pail of 
water. Have the rinsing water ready, with a small portion of 
beef's gall in that, and wash and rinse quickly ; dry in the shade 
and iron on the wrong side with a warm — not hot — iron. The 
water can be softened with borax. French chalk can be used on 
any color and material. Grease is also removed by rub- 
bing the spot with a lump of wet magnesia and after it is dry 
brushing off the powder. If a fast color the material can always 
be washed in the suds made of a pure soap without the beef's gall 
to keep its color. 

Grass stains are removed from white woolens with cream of 
tartar and water or alcohol. White flannel gowns require care 
not to shrink or become yellow unless a Viyella flannel is selected 
which does not shrink when properly washed in a suds of warm 
water and Ivory soap, no soap rubbed on it nor is the washboard 
necessary; rinse in clear water of the same warmth, wrap in a 
cloth until nearly dry after being pressed through a wringer and 
then iron on the wrong side with a warm, not hot, iron. All- 
white woolen dress goods may be cleaned in the same manner, 
using a cloth between the iron and the goods. 

White woolens are dry-cleaned with hot, dry flour or corn meal, 
rubbing the article in a large bowl of this, shaking it off and re- 
peating if necessary; then iron on the wrong side if creased, but 
hanging in the evening air removes ordinary wrinkles. White, 
knit shawls, babies' sacques, etc., are thus cleaned in flour or 
cornmeal, burying them in it for twenty-four hours. White 
flannel waists that are not much soiled are thus dry cleaned. White 
cloth revers, etc., can be covered with salt for a night and then this 
rubbed off with a slice of stale bread, using the crumb. Pipe 
clay is used by military men for cleaning white materials. White 
woolens yellow from age may be whitened by washing in pure 
soapsuds and drying in a warm sun. Yellow linen requires a 
boiling in milk and soap, one pound of soap to a gallon of milk. 

Navy-blue flannel dresses are washed in bran and water with 

59 



a cup of salt to settle the color. Remove grass stains with 
alcohol, which seldom spots even the most delicate color. They 
can be removed from muslin with molasses. In each case keep 
covering the stain until it fades out. Silk vests or hose should be 
dipped in luke-warm Ivory suds, patted between the hands, 
rinsed, partly dried and then pulled into shape and ironed on the 
wrong side with a moderate iron. 

Knit sweaters will soon lose their color and shape if not 
properly cleansed in hot soapsuds, but not rubbed, until clean, 
when the water is pressed rather than wrung out. Spread in an 
airy room out of the sun on a sheet, and pin down in the shape 
that they should be when dry. Mildew stains disappear if rubbed 
with a diluted solution of chloride of lime and then in clear water. 
If white goods get any spots of sewing machine oil upon them, 
the stains may be removed by immersing them at once in clear, 
cold water. Blood stains may often be removed by washing them, 
using no soap, out in cold water, but if not, saturate them in 
kerosene oil and then wash in warm water. 

There is a waterproof crape for wearing in damp weather, but 
if the ordinary crape is worn and gets rusty and slimsy, as it will 
in time, it can be renovated at home after a formula that I have 
personally tested many times. Rip out the hems of veils, brush 
away all dust with an old silk handkerchief, and wind the crape 
smoothly, catching it with pins, around a broomstick or clothes- 
stick. Fill the washboiler half full of water, and when it boils lay 
the stick across it, the ends resting on the edge lengthwise. Keep 
the water boiling hard and steam the crape all day, turning the 
stick so that every part of the crape may be reached. Then put 
the stick away for twenty hours, as the crape must be perfectly 
dry before unpinning it. This gives it a good black and it is crisp 
to the touch. 

A cleansing fluid that has been very highly recommended to 
me by a practical pharmacist is made as follows : Gasoline, one 
gallon ; ether, one teaspoonful ; chloroform, one teaspoonful ; am- 
monia, two teaspoonfuls ; alcohol, one gill. Mix well, and do not 
use near a fire or in a closed room. Do not use the last half cup- 
ful if cleaning delicate colors, as the ammonia settles and will 
discolor light fabrics. Buy the last four drugs in quantities of an 
ounce, as it will be cheaper in the end, and keep for future use 
what is not needed at once. 

This fluid cleanses silk and woolen materials and does not 
shrink the fabric, leaves a new finish, does not yellow white, can 

60 



be used on the most delicate colors and fabrics, and is very cheap. 
Pour out sufficient of the fluid to cover the article to be cleaned, 
using a china washbowl or new tin pan. Put the article in and 
wash as you would in water, rubbing the soiled spots especially 
with an old soft toothbrush on a flat surface. Wring out from 
this and rinse in a second portion of the fluid ; wring out again 
and hang in a draught until the fluid evaporates. Save the remain- 
ing fluid, as it can be used a second time on dark materials, 
like men's clothes, black dresses, carpets, etc. If the article is 
too large to put into the fluid use a sponge or cloth similar in color 
to the soiled fabric. This cleanser will not remove stains made 
by syrup or sweets, which must first be washed in water. 

When color on a fabric has been destroyed by acid, ammonia 
will neutralize the same, and after this using chloroform restores 
the original color. Strong borax water will remove oil stains 
from cotton and linen. Tar and axle-grease stains are the most 
discouraging known, but if taken at once, soap, oil of turpentine 
and water applied in turn will remove them from white cotton 
and linen. Colored cottons and woolens are smeared with lard, 
then rubbed with soap and water and left standing for an hour, 
and finally washed with oil of turpentine and water alternately. 
For silks continue the same treatment as for woolens, only use 
benzine instead of turpentine ; drop the water from a height on 
the under side on the stain and do not rub the material. Try the 
mixture on a small piece of the goods, or upon a hidden portion of 
the skirt facing. 




CHAPTER XVI. 

TO CLEANSE LACES, FURS, ETC. 

The best cleaners are the French people, and they do not 
advise ironing lace, but if it is done have the ironing-board well 
padded and put a cloth between the lace and iron. Do not dry 
black lace by the fire or it will turn rusty. Wash black lace in a 
pint of warm water with a teaspoonful of borax dissolved in it, 
and use an old black kid glove for a wad to sponge it with. 
Borax, diluted alcohol, beer, strained coffee and water in which a 
black kid glove has been boiled, are all excellent renovators for 
black laces, as is also cold strained tea. 

When drying lace the shape of an article, edge, etc., must be 
retained and professionals use for this smooth boards padded with 
an old blanket and covered with clean white muslin, pinning down 
every purl of the edge, each scallop, etc., until perfectly dry ; avoid 
an iron on lace if possible, especially a very warm one. A simple 
method for freshening black lace is to soak it in milk over night, 
rinse in cold water and press lightly when nearly dry, using an old 
silk handkerchief under the iron. Another plan is to souse the lace 
in water containing a few drops, ten to a quart, of alkali volatile. 

When black lace is really dirty wash it first in a suds of cold 
water and Ivory soap and then use the cold tea, strained coffee 
or whatever may be preferred. Many prefer, after sponging the 
lace, to wind it around a bottle filled with warm water and allow- 
ing it to remain until quite dry. Lace that has grown rusty from 
dust should be well shaken and rinsed in a cup of water with a 
tablespoonful each of alcohol and powdered borax ; pat nearly dry, 
pull out the edges and iron, or dry over a bottle. When sponging 
lace, rub from the selvage down so as not to pull it out of shape. 

Gold and silver laces require their own special treatment. An 
English method for silver lace is ammonia applied with an old 
nail brush, drying in the air. For gold lace the following is sug- 
gested: 1 oz. stale bread finely crumbled, £ oz. magnesia, \ oz. 
cream of tartar made into a paste with spirits of wine and applied 
with a nail brush. When dry brush off the crumbs and rub gently 
with chamois leather. Gold and silver laces are also cleaned with 
grated breadcrumbs mixed with powdered blue. Sprinkle this 
well-mixed preparation over the lace for a few hours, then brush 
off the crumbs with a piece of flannel and rub the metal gently 
with a piece of red velvet, the color of which is as important as 

63 



(he material, though why this is so no one can tell, unless it is 
some property of the red dye. 

Real lace as dainty as a cobweb should receive the dry process 
used by French cleaners. Take clean white paper, and cover it 
with calcined magnesia ; lay the lace over it and sprinkle on more 
magnesia ; over this place another piece of paper. Put between 
the leaves of a heavy book for three days, and then with a shake 
scatter the powder. This is a satisfactory method of cleaning lace. 
White silk laces are cleaned by soaking them in milk over night, 
then they should be washed in warm Ivory soapsuds, rinsed, pulled 
out, and finally pinned down on a towel while damp. If you wish 
to give a yellow tinge to lace, make some strong coffee, boiling it 
for an hour ; strain, and mix with cold water until the right tint 
has been secured ; then soak the lace in it for half an hour and dry 
as before directed. A creamy ecru shade may be given to white 
lace by putting powdered saffron in the rinsing water until the 
color is obtained. All laces should be soused up and down and 
gently squeezed or clapped dry between the hands. 

White cotton laces are washed in a warm Ivory soapsuds, 
rinsed, boiled, rinsed for the second time, patted nearly dry, and 
then pinned down on a clean towel over a smooth bed or pillow. 
Every point of the scallops must be carefully pinned down into 
shape. Silk or cotton lace that has yellowed from age may be 
whitened by covering it with the same soapsuds and allowing it to 
stand in the sun. Grated breadcrumbs will clean lace that is not 
much soiled. White laces need a little bluing in the last rinsing 
water ; weak tea gives them a slightly ecru tinge. Very dirty lace 
may be soaked in warm soapsuds all day, changing the water oc- 
casionally. The softer the padding of the ironing-board the more 
a heavy patterned lace will stand out in relief. 

An old-fashioned manner of cleaning white lace is to wind it 
around a bottle or earthen pitcher, place on a plate, put in a pan of 
boiling Ivory soapsuds, add water from time to time, and after 
three hours place in clear tepid water, then cold water, changing 
until the water remains clean and then dry the lace, still on the 
pitcher, in a clean place. The lace must be wound on smoothly, 
scallops pinned down when necessary and also the end. 

Dark furs, seal, mink, Alaska sable, electric seal, etc., are 
cleaned with mahogany or fine cedar sawdust, which can be pur- 
chased at any manufacturing furrier's. Place the fur on a table, 
hairy side up and rub in the sawdust by the handful, do not be 
ungenerous with either the sawdust or the rubbing and then shake 

63 



over the table, saving the sawdust that thus falls. Then lay the 
hair side of the fur down on two or more pillows, according to the 
size of the garment and beat well with a switch. Shake pillows 
occasionally and continue beating until all of the sawdust has been 
removed. White furs are cleaned in a similar manner with white 
cornmeal. 

Grease is removed from fur with gasoline, remembering that it 
is very explosive, applied on a piece of batting; constant rubbing 
and several renewals of the gasoline are often necessary. If this 
fails, do not become discouraged, for there remain spirits of ether, 
oil of turpentine and benzine to be tried. To dye feathers black, 
first wash them in a pint of boiling water in which half a teaspoon- 
ful of soda has been dissolved ; then rinse and put in the dissolved 
package dye as prepared for silk, holding by the tips of the stems 
and moving in the boiling water. Rinse in cold water, dry 
between soft cloths and over a stove where they may be waved 
in the warm air. If the feathers come out too light a black add 
more dye. 

White wings are rubbed with any white face powder. White 
ostrich feathers are cleaned with flour or naphtha, and all are 
easily dyed black. They are curled by first heating them slightly, 
and then curl each flare over a dull knife ; but if near a feather 
curler I would advise patronizing her, as the professionals do it 
far better than any amateur can. When feathers are worn in the 
rain or damp they should be dried at once over the stove, which 
generally restores the curl. Gray wings are to be gently rubbed 
through cornmeal and shaken. Aigrettes are washed in suds of 
the purest soap (Ivory) and shaken dry by the fire or in the sun. 

Cube magnesia is used on white felt hats. Let it stand all 
night and then brush off with a soft brush. Light-colored felt 
hats may be rubbed over with a piece of white crinoline, the 
starch of which cleanses the surface ; another plan is to use white 
cornmeal and then brush it off lightly. Use a soft brush at any 
time to dust off a felt nap, as it roughens easily. Black straw hats 
may be given a new lease of life by revarnishing them, which 
really takes the place of dyeing, using some black sealing-wax 
pounded into small pieces, and over which enough methylated 
spirits to dissolve it has been poured ; then mix thoroughly, and 
apply with a soft brush to the hat, covering every crevice of the 
straw. Blue straw hats may be freshened in the same manner, 
using blue sealing-wax. 

When not in use steel ornaments may be kept in a box of 

64 



powdered starch. If they should become slightly rusty rub with 
spirits of wine and brown paper, polishing afterward with a 
chamois skin. If decidedly rusty no gentle treatment will suffice. 
Soak them in sweet oil well rubbed in for forty-eight hours, and 
then rub with a chamois and finely powdered, unslaked lime until 
the rust disappears. When jet passementerie looks dusty and 
rusty wipe it off with a wad of black silk or cashmere dipped 
in diluted alcohol, and finally wipe dry with a clean rag. Silver 
buttons are cleaned with ammonia and flannel. All metal passe- 
menterie should be covered with tissue paper when not in use. 
Do the same with a patent-leather belt. 

Tulle rosettes and folds which decorate summer stocks may 
be made to appear fresh and crisp by ripping them apart and 
passing the tulle through the steam of a pan of boiling water. 
Chiffon and silk mousseline may be renovated in the same way, 
but must afterward be pressed under a damp cloth. All fine white 
materials, white satin slippers and white laces, when not in use, 
should be laid away in blue tissue-paper to prevent their yellow- 
ing. Delicate silk embroidery may be brightened by spirits of 
wine, using a camel's-hair brush, and being careful not to stain 
the surrounding fabric. The odorless and good Omo "dress 
shields can be washed in warm suds made with Ivory soap, 
which is pure, pulled into shape, and dried by pinning them up 
in a window. Soak genuine whalebones, when bent, in warm 
water, and then at the end of thirty minutes iron them out with 
a hot iron. Gilt braid can be kept a long time untarnished if in 
an airtight tin case. 




CHAPTER XVIL 

THE CARE OF GLOVES AND SHOES. 

Kid gloves must be in oiled paper and a tin case in a tropical 
climate, ditto shoes. White and light-colored kid gloves are 
cleaned on the hands with naphtha — remember its explosive qual- 
ities — until the gloves are perfectly dry. Put on one glove and rub 
it with a clean piece of white flannel dipped into naphtha ; wet it 
all over, and then rub nearly dry with a second piece of flannel. 
Do the second glove in the same manner, and let them remain 
on the hands until dry, in order to retain the shape ; dust on a little 
talcum powder, then hang in a window until the odor has left. 
A sachet bag of white rose and orris-root powder in your glove 
box will keep gloves delightfully perfumed. 

White or yellow chamois or castor gloves worn in the sum- 
mer may be washed on the hands, in a lather of Ivory soap ami 
warm water, first rubbing the most soiled spots with magnesia. 
Rinse in warm and then in cold water, keeping them on the hands 
until nearly dry, then pulling them off in their proper shape and 
pinning them up in the air to dry. I have been told that powdered 
pipe clay will clean white glace kid. Another way is to use 
fullers' earth and powdered alum in equal parts, rubbing it on the 
gloves with a clean paint brush ; then wipe off the powder, sprinkle 
the gloves with bran and shake both powder and bran off. 

Mend kid gloves with a glove needle and cotton of the shade 
used in the seaming; follow the style of sewing, which may be 
buttonhole stitches, the edges lapped, and stitched or sewed 
through and through in a "prick" seam. Always mend gloves on 
the right side. If a hole is worn or pulled apart do not pull the 
edges together and spoil the shape, but work all around the edge 
with one or more rows of buttonholing which will fill the space, 
joining the last rows by a line of over and over stitches. 

Black gloves which have grown white at the seams and finger 
tips may be lightly brushed with the tip of a feather dipped in a 
teaspoonful of salad oil in which a few drops of black ink have 
been dissolved. This is only for glace kid, which may also be 
renovated with ink alone and each spot rubbed afterward with 
flannel dipped in sweet oil. The ink may be used on suede gloves, 
but not the oil. An English authority claims that light-colored 
suedes may be washed and dried on the hands or a pair of box- 
wood forms, using soap boiled in milk as a suds, and rubbing 

66 



them with flannel, then with warm water, and finally a dry 
flannel. I have never tried this plan, but have cleaned slightly 
soiled suede gloves with cornmeal or dry bread, rubbing it over 
them and then using a clean piece of white flannel. 

All black leather or kid shoes, and tan-colored as well, should 
be washed now and then with a piece of flannel dipped in a 
lukewarm suds of Ivory soap. When one's pocketbook can afford 
it have two pair of street shoes and two pair for the house, as 
experience teaches that changing them every day makes them last 
twice as long as when worn constantly. Besides this nothing is more 
restful for tender or tired feet than a fresh pair of shoes during the 
day. If shoes creak, bore tiny holes through the outer sole and fill 
with oil. When a shoe pinches in one spot lay a cloth dipped in 
very hot water over the place, renewing the heat as the water 
cools, and this will shape the leather to the foot. Keep shoes in 
ventilated box or drawer in a shoe bag. Fasten shoes firmly 
across the instep and ankles, and loosely over the ball of the foot. 

The heavy calfskin shoes so often worn nowadays in rainv 
weather are rendered waterproof by greasing them with mutton 
tallow and then rubbing with ink and sweet oil in preference to 
any blacking. Foot forms or "trees" are used by some persons 
for every pair of shoes not in use ; others keep slippers and ties 
stuffed with tissue paper and the former wrapped in same. Pat- 
ent-leather ties are cleaned with flannel and shoe cream, rubbing 
the cream on with one cloth and wiping the shoe dry with the 
second piece of flannel ; then wrap the ties in flannel, as patent 
leather loses its shine if exposed to the damp, dust or outside air. 

An occasional rubbing with cold cream on a bit of flannel 
before using any prepared dressing will keep any shoes soft and 
flexible. Suede slippers are cleaned like suede gloves. Satin slip- 
pers are treated with bran or powdered magnesia, rubbing either 
in well and then brushing off. Tan-colored leather shoes are 
cleaned with a flannel cloth moistened with a little turpentine or 
with some of the various pastes sold especially for these shoes. 

When shoes have been wet and covered with mud they will 
dry in a stiff, uncomfortable manner, unless rubbed at once with 
flannel, removing the water and mud ; and rub with kerosene 
oil, using the indispensable flannel, and let them partly dry, when 
a second rubbing with oil or vaseline is given. Allow them to 
dry in a warm nook, and finally apply the liquid or paste dressing 
that gives the desired polish. 



07 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

WHAT IS CORRECT MOURNING. 

Within the life of each of us comes the sorrowful time when 
mourning attire is necessary, and comparatively few know what 
fabrics should be used during this period or how they should be 
made up in order to be thoroughly correct. Good mourning, 
which, of course, includes crape, is very handsome and refined in 
its appearance, and, while the first outlay is seemingly expensive, 
the materials last a long time. 

I always prefer Priestley's black goods, for their durability, 
variety and uniform black. It is an easy matter to know when 
you receive these fabrics as they are all stamped upon the selvage 
with the firm's name. As black gowns are fashionable for those 
in and out of mourning, it is not an extravagance to buy them 
of good quality, as they can be cleaned and made over as no other 
fabric may be. 

The deepest mourning is that worn by a widow, who dons 
Courtauld's English crape for at least a year, if of conservative 
ideas. Her first dress should be of eudora, which is a smooth, 
silk-warp material that may be spoken of as a perfected henrietta. 
This latter name, however, has been so abused by using it for 
all-wool goods that it no longer means only a silk-warp fabric. 
Eudora more than fills its place, possessing a handsome luster 
and feel and is of a pure silk warp. This trims well with crape 
and should be made up in the prevailing fashion, without going 
to the extreme. An entire suit usually forms the first costume 
intended for street wear. 

In using English crapes see that the crimps run from the left 
to right, diagonally. Even dressmakers sometimes err in making 
up crape on the wrong side. If cut on the bias crape will present 
straight lines ; it is so pliable that it can be shaped to any foun- 
dation and should be perfectly smooth, never puckered. For a 
time the use of crape ceased to a great extent, but it is worn again 
exclusively in such fashion centers as Paris, London, Vienna. 
Berlin and New York. Use it properly and it will prove satisfac- 
tory, but do not labor under the idea that it wears as a cheviot. 

Crape should not be placed on the bottom of a skirt where hard 
wear comes and if arranged as a flat trimming it shows to the 
best advantage. There is a waterproof crape used for veils and 
trimmings of Courtauld's manufacture. Nowadays people don 

GS 



colors after the plainest black garb, but it is certainly in better 
taste not to wear the brightest shades first. After wearing crape, 
colors should not be adopted without an interval devoted to 
plain black. Mourning has been defined as an outward mark of 
inward affection and respect and often prevents unkind remarks, 
as the wearing of crape tells the thoughtless inquirer that the 
wearer has suffered a loss which is at once respected. 

The English nation observes the etiquette of mourning strictly, 
as may be seen from the following list issued by the highest so- 
ciety: A widow wears crape one year, plain black nine months 
and half mourning three ; a daughter for parents wears crape six 
months, black three and half mourning for three months ; a 
mother for a child wears crape six months, black three and half 
mourning three months ; a sister dons crape for three, black for 
two and half mourning for one month ; a grand-daughter wears 
crape for three months, ditto black and half mourning, or nine 
months in all ; a niece wears plain black for two and second 
mourning for one month ; a cousin wears for a cousin, black and 
half mourning each for a month. It is correct to wear mourning 
for a husband's relations as for your own. 

Widows' crape veils are bought ready made, with woven hems 
or by the yard and the hems blind stitched. When complete the 
correct veil reaches the waistline at the back where the hem is 
three inches deep, and to the knees in front where an eight-inch 
hem is taken ; longer than this they are of the extreme school. 
This veil is draped over a small bonnet, usually of the Marie 
Stuart shape, which is plainly covered with crape, has milliner's 
folds on the edge, a white ruche inside and tucked white lawn or 
black grosgrain ties ; the veil fastens on in close cross plaits, each 
caught with a dull jet pin. At the end of three months this veil 
is usually worn thrown back, the deep hem uppermost, and pinned 
thus to the bonnet ; over the face then is worn a short veil of 
plain Brussels net or one edged with tucks, a fold of crape or two 
or three rows of tiny black grosgrain ribbon. 

The silk-warp and all-wool nun's veiling are used for travel- 
ing, rainy days and warm weather with a bonnet of the same. 
After discarding crape a widow wears a hat, usually of straw or 
felt, trimmed with wings, silk ribbon, black flowers, etc. Suede 
gloves are worn as long as in deep mourning, glace gloves after- 
ward, also onyx jewelry and a silk watch-guard ; black-bordered 
handkerchiefs are worn with crape or plain black. At this time 
white lisse can be worn in the neck and sleeves, and even with 

69 



her first mourning a widow wears a turnover collar and cuffs of 
batiste or lawn, hemstitched. 

Pure white for house wear is considered correct in all mourn- 
ing. Black and white pique suits are worn in summer with a 
white or black lawn shirt waist. A second gown for a widow may 
be of silk and wool or all wool crape cloth of a crimpy weave, 
a rough cheviot, an imperial serge, a voile, etamine, soleil or 
wool satin, as it has a rich, glossy sheen and a soft wool texture. 
Another gown for any mourning is tamise of a hard twisted tex- 
ture and silk warp clairette, which is a featherweight that shakes 
all dust. With the exception of crape cloth all of these materials 
are as handsome for those out of mourning as the mourners wear- 
ing it, as a handsome black is always in style. 

Another material especially appropriate for mourning is the 
black and white designs of Viyella in stripes, Jacquard effects, 
figures, etc. It answers for waists, house gowns, kimonos, dress- 
ing sacques and full suits for the summer, affording a fashionable 
coat suit or shirt-waist costume and washing perfectly. In pure 
white with a black sash Viyella forms an attractive frock for 
young people desiring a white wool house dress for mourning. 
The soft gray patterns of this fabric form charming waists for 
light mourning. 

With us a child wears deep mourning for a parent a year, or 
six months and lighter for a year, the same rule holding good 
for a parent wearing mourning for a child, a sister for a brother, 
a grandparent, etc. If a daughter does not wear crape, white 
neckwear is allowed at all times. ( )strich feathers, velvet, gold 
jewelry, etc., are not admissible until crape and even plain black 
have been discarded. The ordinary styles perpared for colored 
gowns are to be used in mourning, only without the elaborate 
trimmings ; folds, bands, braids, etc., are generally worn ; a hand- 
some garniture after discarding crape can be of stitched bands, 
folds or accessories of Moneybak taffeta. The first full dress 
gown used in mourning can be of this rich-appearing material, 
with trimming of embroidered chiffon applique or a touch of jet ; 
young and matronly women wear semi-evening costumes of this 
taffeta. 



vo 



CHAPTER XIX. 

DEFINITIONS NOT GENERALLY KNOWN. 

There is a lack of understanding in regard to the glossary 
of terms used among dressmakers and well-informed dry goods 
men. As such words are constantly appearing in fashion writers' 
notes, many of whom are also ignorant of their meaning, I add a 
list of the terms, thinking them of interest to my readers : 

Apron. — Any kind of a draped or flat skirt front. 

Accordion Plaiting. — The finest of single plaits done by ma- 
chinery; steamed and dried so as to retain their shape. 

A jour. — An openwork effect in embroidery. 

Antique. — A word used to designate styles of former cen- 
turies, such as satin antique, moire antique, etc. 

Applique. — To apply one material to another, as lace applied 
to silk in a piece or single designs of leaves, a vine, etc. ; also 
used as the name of a lace. 

Arabesque. — A scroll figure. 

Armwre. — A fancy weave having a bird's-eye or diaper effect. 

Bag or French Seam. — Seams stitched first on the right side 
and then on the wrong, leaving no raw edges. 

Basque. — A tight-fitting waist extending below the waistline 
in different shapes ; after the dress of the Basque peasants of 
France. 

Bayadere. — Stripes running crosswise of the goods. 

Bengaline. — Applied to silk and woolen goods, as well as to 
a small round cord filled with wool or silk. When the cord takes 
a fancy appearance the fabric is called crystal. 

Bertha. — A trimming following the outline of a low-cut-neck 
dress over the shoulders and made full, as a lace ruffle, or plain, 
as a shaped piece of velvet. 

Beurre. — Butter color. 

Bishop Sleeve. — A shape like those worn on the robes of the 
bishops of the Episcopal Church ; gathered at the top and again 
at the wrist into a straight cuff. 

Blouse. — Loose round waist. 

Boa. — Round fluffy article, long or short, for the neck ; made 
of ribbon, lace or fur. 

Bodice. — A tight-fitting waist. 

Bolero. — A small round sleeveless jacket, after the style of 
the Spanish national costume. 

71 



Border. — Any trimming put on an edge or just above it. 

Bouclc — Tiny locks of hair scattered over the surface of a 
woolen fabric. 

Bouffant. — A very full effect. 

Bouillonnce. — A puffing. 

Bourette. — Rough threads or knots appearing as straight or 
broken stripes. 

Bracelet Cuff. — A straight band around the arm. 

Bretelle. — Sometimes called suspender trimming, as it extends 
from the shoulder — back and front or in front only — to the belt 
or edge of the bodice. 

Brochc (also written Brocade). — Resembling embroidery, 
though the effect is obtained by weaving. 

Brode. — Embroidered effects. 

Cabochons. — Large jet, steel, pearl, etc., nailheads or brooches 
used in passementerie and for millinery. 

Caracule. — Fine Astrakhan fur, looking as though it had been 
moired or watered. 

Carreau. — A square or check figure. 

Changeant and Chameleon. — Changeable effects from weav- 
ing two or three colors together. 

Chiffon. — The softest thin silk material manufactured. 

Chine. — Effects obtained by printing the warp before weav- 
ing, making the filling then of a plain color. 

Choux. — A large rosette like a cabbage. 

Circular Flounce. — One cut as a circle, upper edge plain and 
lower one full. 

Collarette. — Large collar of various shapes covering the 
shoulders. 

Collet. — A small cape or large collar. 

Crepe Lisse. — A light silk fabric, very thin and transparent, 
but feeling like crape. 

Crush Belt. — One of soft folds. 

Cuirasse. — A perfectly plain, tight-fitting waist. 

Dresden. — Warp-print figures, like those used on Dresden 
china. 

Drop Skirt. — A skirt of the dress material, made up separate 
from the lining and then hung or dropped from the same belt. 

Duchesse. — The best satin fabric known. 

Dutch Neck. — A square or round neck cut down only two 
inches below the throat. 

Epaulette. — A trimming to fall over the shoulders. 



Eton. — Short jacket after the style of the boys' uniform at 
the Eton school. 

Faconne. — Fancy. 

Fagoting. — An embroidery stitch used to connect edges. 

Faille Frangaise. — A silken material having a soft cord. 

Feather Stitching. — Similar also to coral and briar stitches 
used in ornamental handwork and embroidery now applied to 
dressmaking. 

Fichu. — A small cape, usually having long ends in front. 

French Back. — A name applied to a single or double-pointed 
yoke on a shirt waist. 

French Knot. — An embroidery stitch used in hand-made trim- 
ming. 

French Gathers. — Gathers made of one long stitch on the out- 
side and one underneath, and alternating. 

Frogs. — Braid ornaments. 

Full Back. — The straight-back widths of a skirt gathered in 
two rows at the top. 

Galloon and Passementerie. — Bead, silk, spangles, etc., dress 
trimmings. 

Gauffre. — An effect seen in silk where the material is pressed 
into forms or patterns. , 

Gauntlet Cuff. — One shaped like the gauntlet on a riding 
glove modeled after the spreading cuffs on the ancient mailed 
gloves of knights. 

Gigot. — Sleeves in a large puff at the top of the arm and close 
below. 

Girdle. — A cord, shaped belt or cincture for the waistline. 

Glace. — (See changeant.) When applied to kid gloves it 
means a smooth or dressed surface. 

Gorget. — A high collar shaped low in front on the lower 
edge, like the collars of the coats of mail formerly worn by 
knights. 

Granite. — An armure effect in both silk and woolen goods. 

Gros Grain, Gros de Londres, Etc. — Small ribbed silk goods. 

Guimpe. — Yoke of white or colored material usually worn by 
children. 

Harlequin. — Of three or more separate colors. 

lmprime. — Printed. 

Iridescent. Rainbow, shot and changeable effects. 

Ivory. — A pure soap used for cleansing all materials, etc. 

73 



Jabot. — A trimming, usually of lace, which is gathered very 
full and allowed to fall as it will in shells. 

Jardiniere. — Color effects resembling a garden of flowers. 

Lance. — Small dots ; also written petits pois. 

Lapels. — See revers. 

Leg-of-Mutton Sleeve. — One full at the top and close fitting at 
the wrist, shaped similar to a leg of mutton. 

Liberty Satin. — A soft, lustrous satin. 

Louisine. — A thin, soft silk. 

Louis XVI., Regence, Directoire, Empire, Victorian, Colonial, 
Etc. — Styles that prevailed at certain periods in different coun- 
tries. 

Melange. — A mixed effect of two or more colors. 

Merveilleux and Rhadames. — Of the satin class of goods. 

Miroir Velvet. — Looking-glass effects obtained by ironing. 

Moire. — A water effect like spreading waves over a silk, cot- 
ton or woolen surface. 

Moneybak. — A famous brand of silk taffeta, peau de soie, etc. 

Motif. — Part of a design, as a leaf from a spray of flowers. 

Mousseline de Soie. — Transparent silk material. 

Nacre. — Mother-of-pearl effects. 

Natte. — The basket weave. 

Natural Color. — The grayish flax shade known as "Natural," 
viz., undyed. 

Ottoman. — A large rep or rib. 

Oriental, Persian, Cashmere, Indienne. — Names applied to a 
series of colors and patterns formerly found on cashmere shawls. 

Paillette. — Spangles of gelatine. 

Plastron. — A full front to a waist. 

Panel. — A straight or tapering piece set in the front or sides 
of a skirt, usually between rows of trimming, so as to give the 
idea of an inlay. 

Peau and Poult de Soie. — Of the family of satins. 

Piping. — A tiny bias fold put on the edge of a band or garment 
as an ornamental finish. 

Placket. — The opening left at the side or back of a skirt. 

Plait. — Knife plaits are narrow folds turned to one side; box 
plaits have a fold turned toward either side, and double and triple 
box plaits have two or three folds ; kilt plaits are single folds 
turned one way. 

Plumetis. — Printed and dotted fabrics. 

74 



P ointille. — D otted . 

Polonaise. — A waist and overskirt combined in one garment; 
taken from the national costume of Poland. 

Pompadour Effects. — Mixed colorings in light shades, as was 
worn in the time of Louis XV. and Mme. de Pompadour. 

Postilion. — Flat back to a basque formed by extensions on the 
center back pieces or separate tabs. 

Pres de Sole. — A fine cotton lining, used for "drops" and 
skirts. 

Princess. — A style of dress in which the waist and skirt are 
made in one-piece breadths from neck to feet. 

Quadrille. — Small checks or squares. 

Quilling. — A narrow plait effect ; a rose quilling is a very full 
triple box plaiting stitched through the middle, so as to have an 
effect like a row of full-blown roses. 

Raye. — Striped. 

Redingote. — An outside garment cut in princess style, with a 
skirt front beneath. 

Revers. — Pointed or square pieces turned back or reversed, 
usually on the front of a waist. 

Ruche. — A trimming of lace, silk, ribbon, etc., laid in plaits 
and stitched in the middle or toward one side. 

Scintillante. — Changeable. 

Shaped Belt. — One made of folds or a plain piece of material 
laid over a boned lining shaped to fit over the waistline and below 
it, being a little deeper in front than at the back where it rounds 
up according to the form. 

Shirr. — Two or more rows of gathers having a space between. 

Smocking. — A peculiar effect used for elastic yokes, etc., 
caused by gathering the material in bunches here and there. 

Soutache. — The narrowest of trimming braids. 

Spanish Flounce. — A flounce extending fully half the depth 
of the skirt, gathered usually to form an erect ruffle. 

Stock Collar. — A full or plain collar in imitation of the stocks 
of fifty years ago. 

Strass. — Paste or artificial diamonds, also called rhinestones. 

SuMe Kid. — Undressed kid ; a skin from which the outer part 
has been rubbed off or skinned. 

Surah. — A soft silk woven in nearly invisible cords. 

Taffeta. — A smooth weave of silk. 

Vandyke. — Pointed effects seen in laces, trimmings, etc. 

Velour. — Velvet. 

15 



Vest. — A flat center-front trimming for a waist and also a 
separate garment. 

Viyella. — An unshrinking, pure wool English flannel. 

V-Shaped. — An expression applied to a low-necked waist cut 
out in the shape of a V at the neck; also used to designate the 
shape of vests. 

Watteau Fold. — A box plait down the center of the back of a 
princess gown, which is laid only from the neck to the waistline 
and then hangs free. 

Yoke. — A trimming of a square, round or pointed shape for 
the chest and shoulders. 

Zibeline. — Woolen material having long hairs. 



CHAPTER XX. 

CORRECT GOWNING FOR ALL OCCASIONS. 

One secret of being a well-dressed woman is to understand 
the proper materials, styles and colors to use for different oc- 
casions, and not to show, by donning the wrong attire, that you 
are not accustomed to such functions. In a slight degree climates 
and countries change such rules, but there are standard usages 
that pass in every clime. 

The variety in materials has increased so that one is never 
at a loss for a selection and, fortunately for many of us, there 
are but few that are not repeated in less expensive goods, and with 
taste and skill used on a gown elegant materials are not so neces- 
sary as that it should suit the individual wearing it ; many of the 
best-dressed, most stylish women seen are not those spending 
the greatest amount on their clothes. 

On a stormy day what is neater than a Wooltex tailored 
costume of a dark color worn under a long coat of cravenette? 
When a pleasanter day dawns omit the coat and wear the suit 
shopping, traveling or for informal visiting, selecting black, 
tan, blue, brown or gray effects ; the long coat is also worn for 
traveling and driving. No matter what gown is worn, see that it 
goes over a corset that- fits and a petticoat of correct shape, as 
the Sorosis, as well as the Foster Hose Supporter, as the under- 
wear greatly influences the appearance of the frock. 

For dressy visiting such gowns as one of Moneybak taffeta, 
colored voile or any of the semi-transparent wools so fashionable, 

7« 



foulard, pongee, linen, jasper silk effects so often called gun- 
metal shades, broadcloth, velvet, mohair, etc., as the season may 
demand; the extensive trimmings of lace, silk galloon, applique, 
hand embroidery, etc., are used so as to make the gown very 
elaborate or simple and yet dressy, but such a gown is worn for 
matinees, visiting, driving and day functions before noon; after 
that lighter colors and more trimming render the attire more 
ceremonious as the occasions after 12 m. prove to be. 

An afternoon reception, dinner at a fashionable hotel, the 
theater, evening wedding, etc., demand a semi-evening costume 
which varies from a "real" lace 
princess gown to one of silk 
and cotton mousseline at 50 
cents, but it must be light-col- 
ored, dressy to the extreme and 
much trimmed, and with such 
a costume a most picturesque 
feather, lace or flower hat is 
worn, and an elaborate half- 
long coat where fashion can be 
followed irrespective of the ex- 
pense involved. 

For a matron a gown of 
Boulevard velvet or Moneybak 
taffeta will form a standby 
for any afternoon or evening 
function, the amount and style 
of trimming making the attire 
plain or dressy to a point of 
being fussy. A long or half- 
long coat of the taffeta is also 
a most convenient garment, as 
it can be worn during the 
day or evening by all ages. A gown of black voile (veiling) 
with coat to correspond, both lined with handsome black taffeta, 
form a costume for a middle-aged or elderly woman whose use- 
fulness can hardly be described in these days. 

Traveling suits have changed more than any style of dress 
during the past five years, and it is universally conceded that 
Americans dress better while journeying than any other nation ; 
their gowns are distinctly of two styles, the tailored jacket suit 
and the shirt-waist dress, the latter being of checked or striped 




A VIYELLA GIRL. 






taffeta, dotted foulard, the mixed gray jasper taffetas, black 
foulard, pongee, linen, etc. The suit with jacket or fitted coat now 
in vogue is of cloth, mixed tweed, plain or cravenette mohair, 
mixed linen, and various wools known as suitings made in tailor 
style and usually worn with a shirt waist. 

The girl of outdoor sports needs another line of suits, as the 
illustration gives the hint of in a golf suit of Viyella flannel, which 
would also answer for tennis or for morning wear at home, as a 
flannel dress that washes without shrinking or fading is one no 
girl wishes to miss the opportunity of having. The same material 
in plain or striped effects forms the useful shirt waist to be worn 
with pique, linen or woolen skirts at any season of the year; a 
flannel waist is usually termed negligee, but this flannel when 
stylishly made and hand embroidered, becomes unusually dressy. 

The separate waist and skirt is not as stylish a costume as 
the one material dress, but it is so convenient that the waist will 
not "down" at any one's behest, especially since the pretty fashion 
of trimming the waists with embroidery or fancy stitching, lace, 
buttons and silk pendants came in. For the woman with a limited 
wardrobe the separate waist remains a "must have," and for even- 
ing wear is of lace, chiffon plaited, soft silk as peau de cygne, 
louisine, etc., white being largely the favorite. 

Day wear waists are of flannel, Viyella, Boulevard dotted vel- 
vet, linen, pique, Madras, lawn, damask, albatross, mohair, cash- 
mere, crepe de Chine, challis, foulard, pongee, fancy taffeta, 
Moneybak black taffeta, voile and numerous dress goods that come 
and go with every season, making the variety of materials suf- 
ficiently large to satisfy every purse, taste and complexion ; when 
selecting do not forget to consult the complexion as well as the 
uses to which the waist will be put; making becomingness and 
individuality the keynotes in dress whether $5 or $500 can be 
spent on the gown. 



78 



p 



hysicians will tell 
you to use 



a pure soap. They recommend 
Glenn's Sulphur Soap 
because they know its value. 

A Real Beautifier. 

Pure sulphur as compounded in 
Glenn's Sulphur Soap 
will clear the complexion of 
pimples, liver spots, dry scaling 
and other defects. 

Glenn's Sulphur Soap 
Cures Dandruff 

and prevents loss of hair. 
It's a specific for 
parasitic skin and scalp diseases. 
The sulphur is absorbed 
by the hair and revives the hair roots. 

Sulphur Baths. 

Glenn's Sulphur Soap 

makes a copious lather and is 

the only fine toilet soap 

that contains enough sulphur to 

produce an effective sulphur bath. 

Used Daily in Toilet and Bath 
It Prevents Disease. 

No other soap has the same 
sweetening, healing and disinfecting 
properties. Be sure to get 

Glenn's Sulphur Soap 

For sale by druggists generally, or mailed on receipt of 30 cents 
by The Charles N. Crittenton Co., 115 Fulton St., New York. 




Mme. Caroline's 
Ne Plus Ultra 
Face Restorer and 
Flesh Food. 

Mme. Caroline's preparations restore freshness, firmness and clearness to 
faded, worn complexions, giving a youthful glow and very smooth skin. The 
Restorer not only removes Freckles, Tan, Blackheads, Liverspots and 
Wrinkles, but also prevents them. It is harmless, and prepared in different 
strengths for all ages. This is not a new, unknown treatment, though seldom 
advertised, except in a few select fashion magazines, as all ladies, fortunate 
in being told of it by their much-improved friends, advertise the genuine 
articles prepared by the old-established specialist. Mme. Caroline, who is 
66 years of age and looks 20 years younger. 

To retain the beauty of your hair while young, use the Hair Grower. 
If the hair is gray, use the Royal Windsor French Hair Restorer 
(made in France) ; not a dye. Testimonials and free advice furnished on 



request. 



Mme. Caroline, 



Reliable Dermatologist and Sole Agent for the Royal Windsor 
Gray Hair Restorer {Made in France). 

Parlors: 219 Sixth Ave., Neto York, N. Y. 




Original 

Manufacturers 

of Fast-Black 

Dress 

Linings 



Home Dressmaking 
Is Easy 

IF YOU HAVE THE RIGHT KIND OF 
LININGS. 

Che "Best Is None Too Good. 

You Are Entitled to the "Best. 
Jire You Getting It? 

Pres de Soie Is the Newest and Best 
Material for Drop Skirts and Petticoats. 

It is soft finish, Fast Black and Colors ; 36 inches wide, retails for 
25 cents a yard and has the silk "feel " and "cry." 




Every Yard Is Guaranteed 
if the 

Gilbert Mfg. Co. 

Is Stamped on the Selvedge. 



Original 

Manufacturers 

of Fast-Black 

Dress 

Linings 



Two I ndispensable A rticles. 

THE CLINTON 
SAFETY PIN. 




The best known, best made, best finished and in every- 
way the most desirable SAFETY PIN that can bought. 
Made in nine sizes, nickel plated and black enamelled. 
Is strength and usefulness combined. 




The Best Pins for Dressmaking (> 
and Personal Use. 

Sharp points and won't bend. 

An absolute necessity for every 
woman sewing. 

All of the leading merchants have these goods, or apply to 

THE OAKVILLE COMPANY, 

WATERBURY, CONN. 

New York Office, 48 Howard St. 




DETACHABLE 

Attached without sewing. Quickly i 



SUNSHINE SILK 

Perfectly Absorbent. Elegant Finish 




OUT OP SIGHT 

Specially foi Summer Shin Wa 



The Only Odorless 
Dress Shield 



THE 



Any 

garment 
damaged 
by an 
imperfect 
shield v 
be paid 
for 



ill 




We 

make 
every 
shape 

and size 

of 

shield 

required 



Absolutely Impervious. Mo tiubber. 

Can be Washed. 



Recommended by Journals of Health and the Medical 
Profession for its purity and hygienic qualities. 



Will not Irritate the flesh. 




CURVETTE 

Specially Adapted for Stout Persons 



LINEN MESH 

An Ideal Hot-Weather Shield 




THESE SHIELDS ACE FOU SALE BY ALL GOOD DEALERS 



OMO MANUFACTURING CO., 



Middletown, Conn. 







Sfc^ 



CORRECTS THESE THREE FAULTS 

Makes the abdomen perfectly flat, whether worn with or without 
a corset. Curves the back at the waist line and reduces the waist 
itself. Throws the bust forward and the shoulders back. 
i Thp Fncrpr Hn«p «,nnnnrfpr can w w< "' n ov " "" shirt-waist holding down the back 

1IIC rOilier nOSe Supporter and concealing under the skirt Its fullness in front. It 
con be worn with perfect comfort and is much more effective than the distressing self-reducing corset. 
Keep and make your figure perfect by ireeaing it. Bend today for one or moro of the following grades: 

Muck or White I.Me (I in. lad), 60 oents 

\l Frilled AVeli (black, while mid colors), ?5 cents 

.tyV^ Heavy Silk Web (Mark, white and colors) (6 In. pad) $1.25 

?^~"\ llenvj Suspender Web (black, white, blue or pink) (S in. pad), ■ $1.50 

"•V* When ordering state height and waist measure. If you can not get the genuine 

I itsTER" (name stamped on every pairl oi your dealer. do not be Imposed upon. 

' -. nd direct to THE FOSTER HOSE SUPPORTER CO.. 488 Broadway. New York 

>s. City; I. IS. KxcrxERT Rubber Co.. Toronto. Canada, Sole Agents for Canada. 

— - _. -- 



&&&<*, 




4488 Morning Jacket, 
32 to 40 bust. 



Every 
Home Dressmaker 

should keep before her 
a copy of 

May Manton's 

LATEST 
j CATALOGUE 

Price by Mail, 15 Cents 



) At AH Agencies, over the 
1 Counter, 10 Cents. 



MAYMANTON 
j PATTERN CO. 

> 132 East 23d Street, 

\ NEW YORK 



Well=Gowned Women 
All Use 

May Manton's 
Patterns 

GLOVE-FITTING 

STYLISH ECONOMICAL 

RELIABLE 

All 10 Cents Each 



Agencies throughout the 
country. Mail orders 
promptly filled. 




TOINSUREA PERFECT = FITTING GARMENT 



Use the 



GRANGER 



Patent 



Hook and Eye and Invisible Eye, 




You should by all 
means quickly try 

The GRANGER Pat- 
ent Hook and Eye. 

My gown, you see, 
fits a la mode, 

Because the Grang- 
er STAYS WHERE 
SEWED. 

MADE IN ALL 
SIZES. 

For Sale Every- 
where. 




D-4 



INVISIBLE EYE 







Grip Never-Slip 



oRAMGEft 

*■* PATENT k 




ta4 No - 2 »^i 


^3 Stays ^2 o 


1 1 


Lagjtatff^pgo 




r^^O" 


1 


7 *<J (i r^7Y> 


f 




IY •MUsible &?^y in 


;ft«f.Mf»4 





LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



Hii Hi III I I ! 

013 960 024 1 



U 



Moneyfeak" 
Black Silks. 



" MONEYBAK " is a registered trade mark woven 
on a special ribbon selvage, and is placed on the edge 
of goods made of pure-dye silk woven in a first-class 
manner. 

It is the manufacturer's guarantee that silk bearing 
this name will not crack, split nor fade. 

It is designed to protect women who desire pure 
silk that will give perfect satisfaction. 

Made in all widths. 

Sold by the leading store in each city. 

Write us for our Booklet, " Silk Secrets," telling 
why some silk cracks, splits and fades. 



Yof k Silk Mfg. Co. 

York, Penna.